Defense evolution in the Gracilariaceae (Rodophyta): substrate-regulated oxidation of agar oligosaccharides is more ancient than the oligoagar-activated oxidative burst.

Weinberger, Florian , Guillemin, Marie-Laure, Destombe, Christophe, Valero, Myriam, Faugeron, Sylvain, Correa, Juan A., Pohnert, Georg, Pehlke, Constanze, Kloareg, Bernard and Potin, Philippe (2010) Defense evolution in the Gracilariaceae (Rodophyta): substrate-regulated oxidation of agar oligosaccharides is more ancient than the oligoagar-activated oxidative burst. Journal of Phycology, 46 (5). pp. 958-968. DOI 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2010.00887.x.

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Abstract

Combined phylogenetic, physiological, and biochemical approaches revealed that differences in defense-related responses among 17 species belonging to the Gracilariaceae were consistent with their evolutionary history. An oxidative burst response resulting from activation of NADPH oxidase was always observed in two of the subgenera of Gracilaria sensu lato (Gracilaria, Hydropuntia), but not in Gracilariopsis and in species related to Gracilaria chilensis (“chilensis” clade). On the other hand, all species examined except Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. liui and Gracilariopsis longissima responded with up-regulation of agar oligosaccharide oxidase to an challenge with agar oligosaccharides. As indicated by pharmacological experiments conducted with Gracilaria chilensis and Gracilaria sp. “dura,” the up-regulation of agar oligosaccharide oxidase involved an NAD(P)H-dependent signaling pathway, but not kinase activity. By contrast, the activation of NADPH oxidase requires protein phosphorylation. Both responses are therefore independent, and the agar oligosaccharide-activated oxidative burst evolved after the capacity to oxidize agar oligosaccharide, probably providing additional defensive capacity to the most recently differentiated clades of Gracilariaceae. As demonstrated with Gracilaria gracilis, Gracilaria dura, and Gracilariopsis longissima, the different responses to agar oligosaccharides allow for a fast and nondestructive distinction among different clades of gracilarioids that are morphologically convergent. Based upon sequences of the chloroplast-encoded rbcL gene, this study suggests that at least some of the samples from NW America recorded as Gs. lemanaeiformis are probably Gs. chorda. Moreover, previous records of Gracilaria conferta from Israel are shown to be based upon misidentification of Gracilaria sp. “dura,” a species that belongs to the Hydropuntia subgenus.

Document Type: Article
Keywords: Benthic Ecology; Gracilaria; Gracilariopsis; Hydropuntia; innate immunity; oxidative burst
Research affiliation: OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB3 Marine Ecology > FB3-EOE-B Experimental Ecology - Benthic Ecology
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: No
DOI etc.: 10.1111/j.1529-8817.2010.00887.x
ISSN: 0022-3646
Projects: Future Ocean, INCO-DEV
Date Deposited: 03 Dec 2010 12:39
Last Modified: 30 May 2018 11:04
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/10289

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