Seasonality of particle-associated trace element fluxes in the deep northeast Atlantic Ocean.

Kuss, J., Waniek, J.J., Kremling, K. and Schulz-Bull, D. E. (2010) Seasonality of particle-associated trace element fluxes in the deep northeast Atlantic Ocean. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 57 (6). pp. 785-796. DOI 10.1016/j.dsr.2010.04.002.

[img] Text
1-s2.0-S0967063710000701-main.pdf - Published Version
Restricted to Registered users only

Download (1540Kb) | Contact

Supplementary data:

Abstract

In the framework of the German contribution to the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS), deep-water fluxes of particle-associated trace elements were measured in the northeast Atlantic Ocean. The sinking particles were collected almost continuously from 1992 to 1996 at three time-series stations, L1 (33 degrees N/22 degrees W), L2 (47 degrees N/20 degrees W), and L3 (54 degrees N/21 degrees W), using sediment traps. The focus of the present study is the temporal variability of the particle-associated elemental fluxes of Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn at a depth of 2000 m.

A clear seasonality of the fluxes that persisted for several years was documented for the southernmost station (L1) at stable oligotrophic conditions in the area of the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre East (NASTE). At L2 and L3, an episodic nature of the elemental fluxes was determined. Mesoscale eddies are known to frequently cause temporal and spatial variability in the flux of biogenic components in that area. These events modified the simple seasonal pattern controlled by the annual cycle at L2, in the North Atlantic Drift Region (NADR), and at L3, which was influenced by the Atlantic Arctic province (ARCT). All stations were characterized by an additional episodic lithogenic atmospheric supply reaching the deep sea.

The integrated annual fluxes during the multi-year study revealed similar flux magnitudes for lithogenic elements (Al, Co, Fe, Ti, and V) at L2 and L3 and roughly twofold fluxes at L1. Biogenic elements (Cd, P, and Zn) showed the opposite trend, i.e., two to fourfold higher values at L2 and L3 than at L1. For Mn, Ni, and Cu, the spatial differences were smaller, perhaps because of the intermediate behavior, between lithogenic and biogenic, of these elements. Similarly, among the three study sites, there were no noticeable differences in the total annual flux of Pb.

The respective lithogenic fractions of the deep-sea fluxes of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, V. and Zn were subtracted based on the amount of Al, with the average composition of the continental crust as reference. This procedure allowed estimation of the labile trace element fraction (TE(exc)) of the particles, i.e., TE taken up or scavenged during particle production and sedimentation. The ratios of TE(exc)/P clearly demonstrated an enrichment of TE over labile P from biogenic surface material to the deep sea for Zn (factor 4-6), Mn (12-27), Ni (3-5), and Cu (9-25); an intermediate status for Co (0.5-2.2); and depletion for Cd vs. P (0.2-0.4). Surprisingly, the recycling behavior of excess Co was found to be similar to that of P. Hence, Co(exc), behaved like a biogenic element; this is in contrast to total Co, which is dominated by the refractory lithogenic fraction.

Moreover, it is argued that these excess elemental fluxes caused a loss of the dissolved elements in upper waters, since their transport reaches the deep-sea waters at 2000 m, a depth far below of deep-winter mixing and upwelling. The annual amount of excess TE exported from surface waters was estimated to be 1.3 x 10(9) mol Zn y(-1), 4.4 x 10(9) mol Mn y(-1), 4.9 x 10(8) mol Ni y(-1), 2.2 x 10(7) mol Cd y(-1), 7.4 x 10(8) mol Cu y(-1), and 2.7 x 10(7) mol Co y(-1) for the whole North Atlantic Ocean. Important primary sources that could replenish these losses are the aeolian and fluvial supply processes. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Document Type: Article
Keywords: Marine chemistry; Trace elements; Particle flux; Eastern North Atlantic Ocean; Non-lithogenic (excess) flux; Export flux; Organic carbon; German JGOFS; SCALE PHYSICAL CONTROLS; NEAR-SURFACE WATERS; PHYTOPLANKTON GROWTH; SEDIMENT TRAP; INTERANNUAL VARIABILITY; MESOSCALE VARIABILITY; PACIFIC-OCEAN; IRMINGER SEA; SARGASSO SEA; TIME-SERIES; JGOFS; POSEIDON; METEOR; VALDIVIA
Research affiliation: OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB2 Marine Biogeochemistry > FB2-CH Chemical Oceanography
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: No
DOI etc.: 10.1016/j.dsr.2010.04.002
ISSN: 0967-0637
Projects: JGOFS
Date Deposited: 10 Jan 2012 14:14
Last Modified: 09 Jun 2017 08:23
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/13361

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item

Document Downloads

More statistics for this item...