Rayleigh-to-shear wave conversion at the tunnel face - From 3D-FD modeling to ahead-of-drill exploration.

Bohlen, T., Lorang, U., Rabbel, W., Müller, C., Giese, R., Lüth, S. and Jetschny, S. (2007) Rayleigh-to-shear wave conversion at the tunnel face - From 3D-FD modeling to ahead-of-drill exploration. Geophysics, 72 (6). T67-T79. DOI 10.1190/1.2785978.

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Abstract

For safe tunnel excavation, it is important to predict lithologic and structural heterogeneities ahead of construction. Conventional tunnel seismic prediction systems utilize body waves (P- and S-waves) that are directly generated at the tunnel walls or near the cutter head of the tunnel boring machine (TBM). We propose a new prediction strategy that has been discovered by 3D elastic finite-difference (FD) modeling: Rayleigh waves arriving at the front face of the tunnel are converted into high-amplitude S-waves propagating further ahead. Reflected or backscattered S-waves are converted back into Rayleigh waves which can be recorded along the sidewalls. :We name these waves RSSR waves. In our approach, the front face acts as an S-wave transceiver. One technical advantage is that both the sources and the receivers may be placed behind the cutter head of the TBM. The modeling reveals that the RSSR waves exhibit significantly higher amplitudes than the directly reflected body waves. The excavation damage zone causes dispersion of the RSSR wave leading to multimodal reflection response. For the detection of geologic interfaces ahead, RSSR waves recorded along the sidewalls are corrected for dispersion and stacked. From the arrival times, the distance to the S-S reflection point can be estimated. A recurrent application, while the tunnel approaches the interface, allows one to quantify the orientation of the reflecting interfaces as well. Our approach has been verified successfully in a field experiment at the Piora adit of the Gotthard base tunnel. The distance to the Piora fault zone estimated from stacked RSSR events agrees well with the information obtained by geologic surveying and exploratory drilling.

Document Type: Article
Keywords: field transformation inversion
Research affiliation: Kiel University
DOI etc.: 10.1190/1.2785978
ISSN: 0016-8033
Date Deposited: 12 Jan 2012 05:33
Last Modified: 23 Sep 2019 21:17
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/15896

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