The role of apoptosis in immunomodulation by beta-glucan during in vitro viral infection.

Miest, Joanna J., Adamek, M., Steinhagen, D. and Hoole, D. (2013) The role of apoptosis in immunomodulation by beta-glucan during in vitro viral infection. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 34 (6). p. 1666. DOI 10.1016/j.fsi.2013.03.100.

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The use of immunomodulating substances such as β-glucan has been shown to increase survival during viral infections in fish. Various underlying mechanisms to explain this effect have been proposed, however the potential role of apoptosis, i.e. a form of programmed cell death, which is an important factor in the immune response against viral infections, has been neglected. The anti-viral response often includes the induction of apoptosis in infected cells in order to limit the reproduction and distribution of the virus. The influence of β-glucan on the apoptotic process is largely unknown, although it can influence apoptosis-related gene expression following exposure to LPS and Poly(I:C). Hence we aimed to ascertain the effects of immunomodulation on the apoptotic process during viral infections to understand if apoptosis plays a role in disease protection. We used spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) in an in vitro model, as they cause extensive mortalities in aquaculture during disease outbreaks, and β-glucan, in the form of the feed supplement MacroGard®, as an immunomodulator. Levels of apoptosis were assessed through microscopy using acridine orange staining, and genetic analysis targeting the pro-apoptotic genes p53, caspase 9, apaf-1 and the anti-apoptotic gene IAP, as well as the nitric oxide producing enzyme iNOS. The results indicated that the effect of the immunomodulant on apoptosis varied depending on the infectious agent. During the SVCV infection, viral-induced apoptosis and some apoptosis related genes seemed to be enhanced in the infected cell cultures by previous exposure to MacroGard®. However, no such effect was observed with CyHV-3 infection. These results could explain some of the protective effects of β-glucan against viral infections, but also suggest the role of immunomodulants on apoptosis may not be consistent across all disease systems. We will discuss these findings in the context of our recent research exploring virus-induced apoptosis.

Document Type: Article
Additional Information: Meeting abstract
Research affiliation: OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB3 Marine Ecology > FB3-EV Marine Evolutionary Ecology
Refereed: No
Open Access Journal?: No
DOI etc.: 10.1016/j.fsi.2013.03.100
ISSN: 1050-4648
Date Deposited: 08 Jul 2013 07:15
Last Modified: 08 Jul 2013 07:15

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