Evidence for a regulatory loop between cholecystokinin (CCK) and tryptic enzyme activity in Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua).

Tillner, Robert, Rønnestad, Ivar, Harboe, Torstein and Ueberschär, Bernd (2013) Evidence for a regulatory loop between cholecystokinin (CCK) and tryptic enzyme activity in Atlantic cod larvae (Gadus morhua). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A - Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 166 (3). pp. 490-495. DOI 10.1016/j.cbpa.2013.08.001.

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Abstract

In order to maximize protein digestion, the release of enzymes into the gut lumen is closely controlled by a regulatory loop. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is among the enteric hormones that play a key role in the control of digestive enzyme secretion, but its role in first-feeding larvae is still unclear and may differ between species. However, in all marine fish larvae that have not developed a stomach by first-feeding, trypsin is the most important proteolytic enzyme. In order to examine the regulation and feedback mechanisms in the gut of larval cod, we therefore studied the interactions between cholecystokinin and tryptic enzyme activity following the administration of solutions containing test substances directly into the gut. We tube-fed a single dose of physiological saline solution containing either CCK, CCK antagonist, trypsin inhibitor, phytohemagglutinin (PHA; a possible trigger for the digestive response) or physiological saline alone, while a further control group was left untreated. We then followed the response in CCK and tryptic enzyme activity for 0.5–8 h after the administration. We performed the experiment on larvae at 26 day post first-feeding, which is before the stomach has evolved and the size of the larvae allows easier handling. Individual larvae were analyzed for CCK and tryptic enzyme activity using radioimmunoassay and fluorimetric techniques respectively. Both factors varied over time in the untreated control group, possibly due to an endogenous daily rhythm. The higher CCK levels at 4 h and 8 h in the saline-injected group may be caused by reflexes initiated by distension of the gut. An increase in tryptic enzyme activity after injection of CCK supports the hypothesis that this hormone plays a part in the release of pancreatic enzymes in larval cod at this developmental stage. However, administration of a CCK antagonist and a trypsin inhibitor did not reveal conclusive results, probably due to the relatively low concentrations used. The response in tryptic activity in the PHA group was similar to the administration of CCK, pointing towards a stimulatory effect of PHA on the proteolytic enzyme capacity of cod larvae.

Document Type: Article
Additional Information: WOS:000325121900011
Keywords: CCK; Trypsin; Digestion; Ontogeny; Endocrine control
Research affiliation: OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB3 Marine Ecology > FB3-EV Marine Evolutionary Ecology
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: No
DOI etc.: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2013.08.001
ISSN: 1095-6433
Projects: NEMO, COST, LARVANET
Date Deposited: 08 Oct 2013 08:30
Last Modified: 11 Dec 2017 12:05
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/22070

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