In vitro leukocyte response of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to helminth parasite antigens.

Franke, F., Rahn, A. K., Dittmar, J., Erin, N., Rieger, Jennifer K., Haase, David, Samonte-Padilla, I., Lange, J., Jakobsen, P. J., Hermida, M., Fernandez, C., Kurtz, J., Bakker, T. C., Reusch, Thorsten B.H. , Kalbe, M. and Scharsack, J. P. (2014) In vitro leukocyte response of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to helminth parasite antigens. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 36 (1). pp. 130-140. DOI 10.1016/j.fsi.2013.10.019.

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[img] Text (Supplementary Fig. 5. Experiment 3 (sympatric/allopatric combinations): In vitro responses of leukocytes from six stickleback populations to S. solidus antigens from identical populations in a fully crossed design. Respiratory burst activity (A), cell )
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[img] Text (Supplementary Fig. 5. Experiment 3 (sympatric/allopatric combinations): In vitro responses of leukocytes from six stickleback populations to S. solidus antigens from identical populations in a fully crossed design. Respiratory burst activity (A), cell )
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Supplementary data:

Abstract

Highlights:
• We investigated in vitro responses of stickleback leukocytes to parasite antigens.
• In vitro responses decreased from generalist to specialist parasites.
• Responses decreased from Gasterosteusaculeatus not infecting to infecting parasites.
• Leukocyte response was increased with parasite prevalence in the natural habitat.
• Immunogenicity of antigens was increased with parasite prevalence as well.
Helminth parasites of teleost fish have evolved strategies to evade and manipulate the immune responses of their hosts. Responsiveness of fish host immunity to helminth antigens may therefore vary depending on the degree of host-parasite counter-adaptation. Generalist parasites, infective for a number of host species, might be unable to adapt optimally to the immune system of a certain host species, while specialist parasites might display high levels of adaptation to a particular host species. The degree of adaptations may further differ between sympatric and allopatric host-parasite combinations. Here, we test these hypotheses by in vitro exposure of head kidney leukocytes from three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to antigens from parasites with a broad fish host range (Diplostomum pseudospathaceum, Triaenophorus nodulosus), a specific fish parasite of cyprinids (Ligula intestinalis) and parasites highly specific only to a single fish species as second intermediate host (Schistocephalus pungitii, which does not infect G. aculeatus, and Schistocephalus solidus, infecting G. aculeatus). In vitro responses of stickleback leukocytes to S. solidus antigens from six European populations, with S. solidus prevalence from <1% to 66% were tested in a fully crossed experimental design. Leukocyte cultures were analysed by means of flow cytometry and a chemiluminescence assay to quantify respiratory burst activity. We detected decreasing magnitudes of in vitro responses to antigens from generalist to specialist parasites and among specialists, from parasites that do not infect G. aculeatus to a G. aculeatus-infecting species. Generalist parasites seem to maintain their ability to infect different host species at the costs of relatively higher immunogenicity compared to specialist parasites. In a comparison of sympatric and allopatric combinations of stickleback leukocytes and antigens from S. solidus, magnitudes of in vitro responses were dependent on the prevalence of the parasite in the population of origin, rather than on sympatry. Antigens from Norwegian (prevalence 30–50%) and Spanish (40–66%) S. solidus induced generally higher in vitro responses compared to S. solidus from two German (<1%) populations. Likewise, leukocytes from stickleback populations with a high S. solidus prevalence showed higher in vitro responses to S. solidus antigens compared to populations with low S. solidus prevalence. This suggests a rather low degree of local adaptation in S. solidus populations, which might be due to high gene flow among populations because of their extremely mobile final hosts, fish-eating birds.

Document Type: Article
Additional Information: WOS:000331671600016
Keywords: Parasite antigens; In vitro leukocyte response; Local adaptation; Gasterosteus aculeatus; Schistocephalus solidus
Research affiliation: OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB3 Marine Ecology > FB3-EV Marine Evolutionary Ecology
OceanRep > The Future Ocean - Cluster of Excellence
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: No
DOI etc.: 10.1016/j.fsi.2013.10.019
ISSN: 1050-4648
Projects: Future Ocean
Date Deposited: 16 Oct 2013 08:18
Last Modified: 05 Jan 2017 13:31
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/22108

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