In-situ Ocean Observations: A brief history, present status and future directions.

Gould, John, Sloyan, Bernadette and Visbeck, Martin (2013) In-situ Ocean Observations: A brief history, present status and future directions. In: Ocean Circulation and Climate: A 21st Century Perspective. , ed. by Siedler, Gerold, Griffies, Stephen M., Gould, John and Church, John A.. International Geophysics Series, 103 . Academic Pr., Oxford, UK, pp. 59-82. 2. ISBN 978-0-12-391851-2

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Abstract

Observations at and below the surface of the oceans are essential for understanding the ocean system and the role played by the ocean in earth’s climate, for documenting changes and for initialising, validating and improving ocean models. It is only since the late 20th century that, thanks to advances in microelectronics, battery technology and satellite communication in-situ observations, (together with satellite observations), have reached a volume and spatial distribution that allows us to track a wide range of global and regional phenomena. This review traces the development of in-situ ocean observations primarily from a physical standpoint and describes the internationally co-ordinated observing networks that now supply these observations. It considers the enormous changes that have occurred in the volume and distribution of these observations and the implication of these changes for defining the evolving state of the global ocean. Finally there is discussion of the prospects for further improving sustained ocean observations and for the delivery of integrated information from interrelated observing networks.

Document Type: Book chapter
Additional Information: Buch in Bibliothek vorhanden - book available
Keywords: climatic changes; WOCE; ocean circulation; modelling; transport; water masses; ocean-atmosphere interaction
Research affiliation: OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB1 Ocean Circulation and Climate Dynamics > FB1-PO Physical Oceanography
Open Access Journal?: Yes
Date Deposited: 20 Dec 2013 11:32
Last Modified: 14 Apr 2020 08:12
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/22803

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