The Fate of Bubbles in a Large, Intense Bubble Megaplume for Stratified and Unstratified Water : Numerical Simulations of 22/4b Expedition Field Data.

Leifer, I., Solomon, E., Schneider von Deimling, Jens, Rehder, Gregor, Coffin, R. and Linke, Peter (2015) The Fate of Bubbles in a Large, Intense Bubble Megaplume for Stratified and Unstratified Water : Numerical Simulations of 22/4b Expedition Field Data. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 68 . pp. 806-823. DOI 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2015.07.025.

[img] Text
Leifer et al 2015.pdf - Published Version
Restricted to Registered users only

Download (4Mb) | Contact

Supplementary data:

Abstract

Extremely intense bubble plumes, like the North Sea 22/4b blowout megaplume (defined as more than 10(6) L day(-1)), create very strong upwelling flows (>1 m s(-1)), which lead to detrainment of methane-enriched water, but leave direct bubble-mediated transport unaffected. Dissolved CH4 depth profiles and atmospheric measurements during a fall 2011 survey of the 22/4b site suggest strong constraint of seabed CH4 below the thermocline. Seabed bubbles were nearly pure CH4.

The effect of the upwelling flow on the fate of bubble plume CH4 was investigated with a numerical bubble-propagation model. The model considered different representative bubble plume size distributions, phi, and a global (total) megaplume bubble size distribution, Phi, synthesized from video survey data and phi from the literature. Simulations showed that none of the literature plumes or variations in the upwelling flow could constrain CH4 sufficiently below the thermocline.

Two new bubble megaplume processes were simulated, vortical bubble trapping (slow rise) and a hypothesized, enhanced bubble gas exchange, k(BE), an enhancement factor applied to the normal bubble gas exchange rate, k(B). The latter could arise from plume turbulence increasing bubble boundary-layer turbulence and thus its gas exchange. Observations could not be reproduced solely by slow rise, however, simulations with k(BE)similar to 6 reproduced observational constraints, as could weaker k(BE) in conjunction with slow rise.

Field validation of k(BE) is needed given its implications for the fate of megaplume CH4 emissions (anthropogenic or natural) for stratified and unstratified conditions. kBE suggests marine CH4 geologic contributions to the atmosphere from all but shallow waters primarily arises from bubble plumes that are less than megaplume size.

Document Type: Article
Additional Information: WOS:000367631900010
Keywords: Bubble plume, numerical model, atmospheric methane measurements, North Sea, seepage, blowout, 22/4b, vortical motions, enhanced bubble gas exchange ; NOORDHOEK PATHFINDER
Research affiliation: OceanRep > The Future Ocean - Cluster of Excellence > FO-R07
OceanRep > The Future Ocean - Cluster of Excellence > FO-R05
OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB2 Marine Biogeochemistry > FB2-MG Marine Geosystems
OceanRep > The Future Ocean - Cluster of Excellence
OceanRep > The Future Ocean - Cluster of Excellence > FO-R06
OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB4 Dynamics of the Ocean Floor > FB4-GDY Marine Geodynamics
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: No
DOI etc.: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2015.07.025
ISSN: 0264-8172
Projects: Future Ocean
Date Deposited: 14 Jan 2014 08:07
Last Modified: 19 Dec 2017 12:50
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/22986

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item

Document Downloads

More statistics for this item...