Major changes in the post-glacial evolution of magmatic compositions and pre-eruptive conditions of Llaima Volcano, Andean Southern Volcanic Zone, Chile.

Schindlbeck, Julie , Freundt, Armin and Kutterolf, Steffen (2014) Major changes in the post-glacial evolution of magmatic compositions and pre-eruptive conditions of Llaima Volcano, Andean Southern Volcanic Zone, Chile. Bulletin of Volcanology, 76 (6). p. 830. DOI 10.1007/s00445-014-0830-x.

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Abstract

Llaima is one of the most active volcanoes of the Chilean volcanic front with recent explosive eruptions in 2008 and 2009. Understanding how the volcano evolved to its present state is essential for predictions of its future behavior. The post-glacial succession of explosive volcanic eruptions of Llaima stratovolcano started with two caldera-forming eruptions at ∼16 and ∼15 ka, that emplaced two large-volume basaltic-andesitic ignimbrites (unit I). These are overlain by a series of fall deposits (unit II) changing from basaltic-andesitic to dacitic compositions with time. The prominent compositionally zoned, dacitic to andesitic Llaima pumice (unit III) was formed by a large Plinian eruption at ∼10 ka that produced andesitic surge deposits (unit IV) in its terminal phase. The following unit V represents a time interval of ∼8,000 years during which at least 30 basaltic to andesitic ash and lapilli fall deposits with intercalated volcaniclastic sediments and paleosols were emplaced. Bulk rock, mineral, and glass chemical data constrain stratigraphic changes in magma compositions and pre-eruptive conditions that we interpret in terms of four distinct evolutionary phases. Phase 1 (=unit I) magmas have lower large ion lithophile (LIL)/high field strength (HFS) element ratios compared to younger magmas and thus originated from a mantle source less affected by slab-derived fluids. They differentiated in a reservoir at mid-crustal level. During the post-caldera phase 2 (=units II–IV), relatively long residence times between eruptions allowed for increasingly differentiated magmas to form in a reservoir in the middle crust. Fractional crystallization led to volatile enrichment and oversaturation and is the driving force for the large Plinian eruption of the most evolved (unit III) dacite at Llaima, although replenishment by hot andesite probably triggered the eruption. During the subsequent phase 3 (=unit V >3 ka), frequent mafic replenishments at mid-crustal storage levels favored shorter residence times limiting erupted magma compositions to water-undersaturated basaltic andesites and andesites. At around 3 ka, the magma storage level for phase 4 (=unit V <3 ka to present) shifted to the uppermost crust where the hot magmas partly assimilated the granitic country rock. Although water contents of these basaltic andesites were low, the low-pressure storage facilitated water saturation before eruption. The change in magma storage level at 3 ka was responsible for the dramatic increase in eruption frequency compared to the older Llaima history. We suggest that the change from middle to upper crust magma storage is caused by a change in the stress regime below Llaima from transpression to tension.

Document Type: Article
Additional Information: WOS:000337790200004
Keywords: Southern Volcanic Zone ; Post-glacial volcanism ; Andesite-dacite petrogenesis ; Pre-eruptive conditions
Research affiliation: OceanRep > SFB 574 > C4
OceanRep > SFB 574
OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB4 Dynamics of the Ocean Floor > FB4-MUHS
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: No
DOI etc.: 10.1007/s00445-014-0830-x
ISSN: 0258-8900
Projects: Future Ocean
Contribution Number:
ProjectNumber
SFB 574271
Date Deposited: 19 May 2014 08:22
Last Modified: 23 Sep 2019 19:53
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/24616

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