A global analysis of erosion of sandy beaches and sea-level rise: An application of DIVA.

Hinkel, J., Nicholls, R. J., Tol, R. S. J., Wang, Z. B., Hamilton, J. M., Boot, G., Vafeidis, A. T., McFadden, L., Ganopolski, A. and Klein, R. J. T. (2013) A global analysis of erosion of sandy beaches and sea-level rise: An application of DIVA. Global and Planetary Change, 111 . pp. 150-158. DOI 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2013.09.002.

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Abstract

This paper presents a first assessment of the global effects of climate-induced sea-level rise on the erosion of sandy beaches, and its consequent impacts in the form of land loss and forced migration of people. We consider direct erosion on open sandy coasts and indirect erosion near selected tidal inlets and estuaries, using six global mean sea-level scenarios (in the range of 0.2–0.8 m) and six SRES socio-economic development scenarios for the 21st century. Impacts are assessed both without and with adaptation in the form of shore and beach nourishment, based on cost-benefit analysis that includes the benefits of maintaining sandy beaches for tourism. Without nourishment, global land loss would amount to about 6000–17,000 km2 during the 21st century, leading to 1.6–5.3 million people being forced to migrate and migration costs of US$ 300–1000 billion (not discounted). Optimal beach and shore nourishment would cost about US$ 65–220 billion (not discounted) during the 21st century and would reduce land loss by 8–14%, forced migration by 56–68% and the cost of forced migration by 77–84% (not discounted). The global share of erodible coast that is nourished increases from about 4% in 2000 to 18–33% in 2100, with beach nourishment being 3–4 times more frequent than shore nourishment, reflecting the importance of tourism benefits. In absolute terms, with or without nourishment, large countries with long shorelines appear to have the largest costs, but in relative terms, small island states appear most impacted by erosion. Considerable uncertainty remains due to the limited availability of basic coastal geomorphological data and models on a global scale. Future work should also further explore the effects of beach tourism, including considering sub-national distributions of beach tourists.

Document Type: Article
Additional Information: Times Cited: 0 Hinkel, Jochen Nicholls, Robert J. Tol, Richard S. J. Wang, Zheng B. Hamilton, Jacqueline M. Boot, Gerben Vafeidis, Athanasios T. McFadden, Loraine Ganopolski, Andrey Klein, Richard J. T.
Keywords: erosion, sandy beaches, beach nourishment, tourism, climate adaptation, climate impacts
Research affiliation: OceanRep > The Future Ocean - Cluster of Excellence
Kiel University
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: No
DOI etc.: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2013.09.002
ISSN: 0921-8181
Projects: Future Ocean
Date Deposited: 08 Jul 2014 09:23
Last Modified: 22 Jul 2019 13:42
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/24961

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