Evaluation of genetic components of Arctic Zone Rivers Flow Using Isotopic Approach .

Grigoryeva, Elena (2009) Evaluation of genetic components of Arctic Zone Rivers Flow Using Isotopic Approach . (Master thesis), University of Bremen ; SPbSU, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, Bremen ; Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 43 pp.

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Abstract

The problem of a quantitative evaluation of genetic components of Arctic zone is difficult and diverse. That is caused, first of all, by a weak hydrological and hydro-geological level of researches of territory.
Streamflow definition is especially complicated for the small rivers of Arctic regions (which watershed area less than 100 км2). Therefore in practice often resort to methods of numerical modelling in which frameworks definition of components of the rivers flow in the Arctic region is especially actual.
In the work features of run-off generation of the small rivers of Arctic regions on an example of the rivers are considered: Groen (an island West Spitsbergen), Neglinka (Kareliya). Besides, their comparison with the river Tom' (a southeast part of West Siberian plain) is resulted.
Research objective - to establish laws intra-annual and inter-seasonal (taking into account phases of a hydrological cycle) distributions of genetic components of flow of small Arctic zone rivers to an example of the rivers Groen and Neglinka and to compare them to river Tom' characteristics.
Isotope tracers are useful tools for better understanding hydrological processes. The use of stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes as tracers in hydrologic studies has expanded over the past five decades following the initial description of systematic variations in world precipitation, development of theory describing isotopic fractionation during evaporation, and testing and validation under arrange of field conditions and scales.
The processes that impact the isotopic composition of precipitating water are phase changes and mixing in the various storage watersheds. The most conventional application of stable isotopes in smaller catchments is the identification of “old-water” and “new-water”, in other words distinguishing surface runoff (that rapidly reached the river stream) from base-flow (that was in contact with the groundwater for extended periods)[6,7,8].
Variations in the relative abundances of these isotopes, measured as 18O/16O and 2H/1H ratios and expressed conventionally as 18O and 2H values often provide characteristic labeling of tremendous value in studies ranging from tracing of the origin and distillation history of atmospheric moisture parcels to the analysis of runoff generation.
In work materials of field and laboratory researches of genetic components of the Arctic rivers are presented. The information received in works of expedition Svalbard-2008 AARI is key and also approbations of natural waters in territory of Kareliya and a river Neglinka reservoir during the period February-March, 2009. This information has been added by approbation of natural waters in territory of Tomsk region, and also the data of researches of previous years. 86 samples of natural waters were analyzed on stable isotopes of water δ2Н and δ18О content as the parameters reflecting a condition and properties of waters of a various origin.
For surface water following laws are marked:
– The small rivers of the Arctic zone have the same as the river Tom' main component during the year - an atmospheric precipitation (snow);
– The isotope data confirms, in the end of winter low-flow period, after an exhaustion of a stock of ground waters and in the absence of thaw, the feeding of the small rivers is almost completely provided at the expense of underground waters;
- A natural feeding and completion of stocks of underground waters occurs mainly for the account infiltration thawing winter deposits in a spring high water period to what the isotope structure of underground waters which are facilitated concerning mid-annual deposits (are shifted lengthways LMWL downwards) testifies.

Document Type: Thesis (Master thesis)
Thesis Advisors: Hubberten, Hans-Wolfgang and Truschevsky, V.
Keywords: Arctic region; Arctic Ocean; River flow; Hydrology; Geohydrology
Research affiliation: AWI
Projects: POMOR
Date Deposited: 01 Apr 2015 11:09
Last Modified: 01 Apr 2015 11:09
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/28406

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