Evaluation of NorESM-OC (versions 1 and 1.2), the ocean carbon-cycle stand-alone configuration of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM1).

Schwinger, Jörg, Goris, Nadine, Tjiputra, Jerry F., Kriest, Iris , Bentsen, Mats, Bethke, Ingo, Ilicak, Mehmet, Assmann, Karen M. and Heinze, Christoph (2016) Evaluation of NorESM-OC (versions 1 and 1.2), the ocean carbon-cycle stand-alone configuration of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM1). Open Access Geoscientific Model Development, 9 . pp. 2589-2622. DOI 10.5194/gmd-9-2589-2016.

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Abstract

Idealised and hindcast simulations performed with the stand-alone ocean carbon-cycle configuration of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM-OC) are described and evaluated. We present simulation results of two different model versions at different grid resolutions and using two different atmospheric forcing data sets. Model version NorESM-OC1 corresponds to the version that is included in the fully coupled model NorESM-ME1, which participated in CMIP5. The main update between NorESM-OC1 and NorESM-OC1.2 is the addition of two new options for the treatment of sinking particles. We find that using a constant sinking speed, which has been the standard in NorESM's ocean carbon cycle module HAMOCC (HAMburg Ocean Carbon Cycle model) does not transport enough particulate organic carbon (POC) into the deep ocean below approximately 2000 m depth. The two newly implemented parameterisations, a particle aggregation scheme with prognostic sinking speed, and a simpler scheme prescribing a linear increase of sinking speed with depth, provide better agreement with observed POC fluxes. Additionally, reduced deep ocean biases of oxygen and remineralised phosphate indicate a better performance of the new parameterisations. For model version 1.2, a re-tuning of the ecosystem parameterisation has been performed, which (i) reduces previously too high primary production in high latitudes, (ii) consequently improves model results for surface nutrients, and (iii) reduces alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon biases at low latitudes. We use hindcast simulations with prescribed observed and constant (pre-industrial) atmospheric CO2 concentrations to derive the past and contemporary ocean carbon sink. For the period 1990–1999 we find an average ocean carbon uptake ranging from 2.01 to 2.58 Pg C yr-1 depending on model version, grid resolution and atmospheric forcing data set.

Document Type: Article
Research affiliation: OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB2 Marine Biogeochemistry > FB2-BM Biogeochemical Modeling
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: Yes
DOI etc.: 10.5194/gmd-9-2589-2016
ISSN: 1991-959X
Projects: EVA, ORGANIC, NOTUR/NorStore, CESM
Date Deposited: 22 Feb 2016 13:37
Last Modified: 01 Feb 2019 15:13
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/31450

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