Invasion of novel habitats uncouples haplo-diplontic life cycles.

Krueger-Hadfield, Stacy A., Kollars, Nicole M., Byers, James E., Greig, Thomas W., Hammann, Mareike, Murray, David C., Murren, Courtney J., Strand, Allan E., Terada, Ryuta, Weinberger, Florian and Sotka, Erik E. (2016) Invasion of novel habitats uncouples haplo-diplontic life cycles. Molecular Ecology, 25 (16). 3801-3816 . DOI 10.1111/mec.13718.

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Supplementary data:

Abstract

Baker's Law predicts uniparental reproduction will facilitate colonization success in novel habitats. While evidence supports this prediction among colonizing plants and animals, few studies have investigated shifts in reproductive mode in haplo-diplontic species in which both prolonged haploid and diploid stages separate meiosis and fertilization in time and space. Due to this separation, asexual reproduction can yield the dominance of one of the ploidy stages in colonizing populations. We tested for shifts in ploidy and reproductive mode across native and introduced populations of the red seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla. Native populations in the northwest Pacific Ocean were nearly always attached by holdfasts to hard substrata and, as is characteristic of the genus, haploid–diploid ratios were slightly diploid-biased. In contrast, along North American and European coastlines, introduced populations nearly always floated atop soft-sediment mudflats and were overwhelmingly dominated by diploid thalli without holdfasts. Introduced populations exhibited population genetic signals consistent with extensive vegetative fragmentation, while native populations did not. Thus, the ecological shift from attached to unattached thalli, ostensibly necessitated by the invasion of soft-sediment habitats, correlated with shifts from sexual to asexual reproduction and slight to strong diploid bias. We extend Baker's Law by predicting other colonizing haplo-diplontic species will show similar increases in asexuality that correlate with the dominance of one ploidy stage. Labile mating systems likely facilitate colonization success and subsequent range expansion, but for haplo-diplontic species, the long-term eco-evolutionary impacts will depend on which ploidy stage is lost and the degree to which asexual reproduction is canalized.

Document Type: Article
Additional Information: Microsatellite primer sequences were deposited in GENBANK, Accession nos. KT232089-KT232097 and KT232099 (Kollars et al. 2015). Microsatellite genotypic data were deposited in DRYAD, entry doi:10.5061/dryad.fg818
Keywords: Baker's Law; biological invasion;biphasic life cycle; fragmentation; Gracilaria; haploid–diploid; population genetics; seaweed; uniparental reproduction
Research affiliation: OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB3 Marine Ecology > FB3-EOE-B Experimental Ecology - Benthic Ecology
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: No
DOI etc.: 10.1111/mec.13718
ISSN: 0962-1083
Related URLs:
Date Deposited: 12 Jul 2016 10:10
Last Modified: 01 Feb 2019 15:14
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/33338

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