Patterns and processes influencing upper Cretaceous reefs.

Johnson, C. C., Sanders, D., Kauffman, E. G. and Hay, William W. (2002) Patterns and processes influencing upper Cretaceous reefs. In: Phanerozoic Reef Patterns. , ed. by Kiessling, Wolfgang. SEPM Special Publication Series, 72 . Society for Sedimentary Geology, Tulsa, Okla., pp. 549-585. DOI 10.2110/pec.02.72.0549.

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Upper Cretaceous reefs wereconcentrated inlow to mid latitude regions in theNorthern Hemisphere between the Americas
and the Arabian Peninsula Rudist bivalves scleractinian corals sponges stromatoporoids and algae were the dominant biota. Most Late
Cenomanian through Santonian reefs occurred in low paleolatitudes 0-30°N and were dominated by rudist bivalves North of 30° reefs
constructed of corals stromatoporoids and siliceous sponges outnumbered those of bivalves Campanian through Maastrichtian reefs
occurred between the equator and 30° N and were also dominated by bivalves whereas corals and bryozoans dominated the northern
The distribution of Upper Cretaceous reefs was analyzed with respect to paleogeography surface current circulation patterns sea level
and sea water chemistry. Considering the paleogeographic setting of the Late Cretaceous westward flowing surface currents accounted
for the low to mid latitude distribution patterns of reefs whereas northward surface currents could account for northern occurrences in the European and North American regions especially during sea level highstands when shelfal areas were flooded. There is a global
correspondence between the development of Upper Cretaceous reefs and the first-order sea-level highstand of Haq et al. (1987) but there
is only a regional not global correlation between reefs and second order sea level fluctuations some reefs were associated with third order and fourth order fluctuations. We found no direct correspondence between the global distribution of Upper Cretaceous reefs and oceanic anoxic events salinity, aragonite-calcite seas or sea-surface temperature, although links still need to beinvestigated for geographic regions and subdivisions of the Late Cretaceous.
Numerical analyses of the PaleoReef database allowed for an assessmentof the biological and physical attributes of reefs. From this
database Upper Cretaceous reefs representing the Upper Zuni III supersequence. Late Cenomanian Santonian can be characterized by
rudists of theconstructor guild. Other biota are also prominent. Biostromes and reef mounds in shallow intraplatform or platform-margin
settings have large amounts of micrite and amoderate debris potential. Reefs representing the Upper ZuniIV supersequence Campanian
Maastrichtian can be characterized by rudists and oysters of the constructor guild. Other biota are prominent Biostromes and reef mounds
in a marginal marine setting have large to moderate amounts of micriteand a moderate debris potential.

Document Type: Book chapter
Keywords: Patterns, processes, upper creataceous reefs, reefs, Phanerozoic Reef Patterns
Research affiliation: OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB1 Ocean Circulation and Climate Dynamics > FB1-P-OZ Paleo-Oceanography
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: No
DOI etc.: 10.2110/pec.02.72.0549
Date Deposited: 15 Nov 2016 08:14
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2018 10:03

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