Conceptual framework for capacity and intensity physical soil properties affected by short and long-term (14 years) continuous no-tillage and controlled traffic.

Reichert, J. M., da Rosa, V. T., Vogelmann, E. S., da Rosa, D. P., Horn, Rainer, Reinert, D. J., Sattler, A. and Denardin, J. E. (2016) Conceptual framework for capacity and intensity physical soil properties affected by short and long-term (14 years) continuous no-tillage and controlled traffic. Soil & Tillage Research, 158 . pp. 123-136. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2015.11.010.

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Abstract

Recent studies have shown harmful effects of soil compaction in no-tillage system (NTS), but there are indications that soil structure improves with time of NTS adoption. We formulated the hypothesis that topsoils of NTS initially have worse soil physical conditions than those under conventional systems, but these conditions gradually improve with time also down to deeper depth, even when the soil is wheeled by farm machinery. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of a long-term no-tillage system and machine traffic on soil mechanical and hydraulic properties. The treatments and soil conditions consisted of five periods since the last conventional tillage (or age of NTS) in a Hapludox: 0.2,1.5, 3.5, 5 and 14 years, with and without traffic; named recent tillage, and initial, intermediate, transition and stabilized NTS phases. Soil samples were collected from soil layers 0-7, 7-14 and 14-21 cm depth to determine soil porosity, precompression stress, compressibility coefficient, saturated hydraulic conductivity, air permeability, water retention curve, bulk density and organic carbon. Conventional tillage of soil previously under no tillage significantly affected soil capacity properties, resulting in high macroporosity and deformation susceptibility, low bulk density and precompression stress. Intensity properties were affected initially by an increased soil pore obstruction, negatively affecting air permeability and saturated hydraulic conductivity, from 0 to 21 cm soil depth. However, after five years of no-tillage there was an increase in microporosity and, although small, in soil organic carbon, especially in the 0-7 cm soil layer; thus, soil water retention and soil intensity properties (like soil water and air permeability) were also improved, regardless of farm machinery traffic. Over time, soil reconsolidation occurred, which resulted in reduction of the compressibility coefficient and degree of compactness, mainly in the upper layers (07 and 7-14 cm). However, in the deepest layer with the least disturbance, the degree-of-compactness and bulk density increased. The evolution of physical properties and processes (from recent tillage to stabilized NTS phase) for no-tilled soil is proposed for controlled and uncontrolled traffic systems as a framework based on field data for capacity and intensity soil properties. The process of creating aggregates is represented, at first, by an increased number of contact points before they are re-loosened and strengthened at the same time by a rearrangement of particles, reducing aggregate bulk density but increasing soil strength at the same time. The framework is divided into 4 phases: initial (1.5 years), intermediary (3.5 years), transitional (5 years), and stabilized (14 years) conditions. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Document Type: Article
Additional Information: Times Cited: 7 Reichert, Jose Miguel da Rosa, Vanderleia Trevisan Vogelmann, Eduardo Saldanha da Rosa, David Peres Horn, Rainer Reinert, Dalvan Jose Sattler, Arcenio Denardin, Jose Eloir
Keywords: Soil management, Air permeability, Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Porosity, Organic carbon
Research affiliation: OceanRep > The Future Ocean - Cluster of Excellence
Kiel University
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: No
DOI etc.: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2015.11.010
ISSN: 0167-1987
Projects: Future Ocean
Date Deposited: 26 Feb 2017 11:23
Last Modified: 03 Jun 2019 16:52
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/36281

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