Tripartite species interaction: eukaryotic hosts suffer more from phage susceptible than from phage resistant bacteria.

Wendling, Carolin C. , Piecyk, Agnes, Refardt, Dominik, Chibani, Cynthia, Hertel, Robert, Liesegang, Heiko, Bunk, Boyke, Overmann, Jörg and Roth, Olivia (2017) Tripartite species interaction: eukaryotic hosts suffer more from phage susceptible than from phage resistant bacteria. Open Access BMC Evolutionary Biology, 17 (1). Art.Nr. 98. DOI 10.1186/s12862-017-0930-2.

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Text (Figure S1.Original sorted and nested sorted matrices of each replicate of the qualitative assays. Rows and columns represent bacteria and phages. A black square indicates an interaction, i.e. infection success as determined by plaque formation...)
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Text (Figure S2.Number of colony forming units in infected pipefish differentiated by bacterial group as well as non-infected pipefish (PBS control))
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[img] Text (Table S4.Univariate ANOVAs of each immune gene of pipefish infected with R-, IS-, and HS bacteria. Bacterial group was treated as a fixed factor and each single strain was nested in its bacterial group. Significant p-values are presented in boldface)
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Supplementary data:

Abstract

Background:
Evolutionary shifts in bacterial virulence are often associated with a third biological player, for instance temperate phages, that can act as hyperparasites. By integrating as prophages into the bacterial genome they can contribute accessory genes, which can enhance the fitness of their prokaryotic carrier (lysogenic conversion). Hyperparasitic influence in tripartite biotic interactions has so far been largely neglected in empirical host-parasite studies due to their inherent complexity. Here we experimentally address whether bacterial resistance to phages and bacterial harm to eukaryotic hosts is linked using a natural tri-partite system with bacteria of the genus Vibrio, temperate vibriophages and the pipefish Syngnathus typhle. We induced prophages from all bacterial isolates and constructed a three-fold replicated, fully reciprocal 75 × 75 phage-bacteria infection matrix.

Results:
According to their resistance to phages, bacteria could be grouped into three distinct categories: highly susceptible (HS-bacteria), intermediate susceptible (IS-bacteria), and resistant (R-bacteria). We experimentally challenged pipefish with three selected bacterial isolates from each of the three categories and determined the amount of viable Vibrio counts from infected pipefish and the expression of pipefish immune genes. While the amount of viable Vibrio counts did not differ between bacterial groups, we observed a significant difference in relative gene expression between pipefish infected with phage susceptible and phage resistant bacteria.

Conclusion:
These findings suggest that bacteria with a phage-susceptible phenotype are more harmful against a eukaryotic host, and support the importance of hyperparasitism and the need for an integrative view across more than two levels when studying host-parasite evolution.

Document Type: Article
Keywords: Temperate phages; Prophages; Bacteria-phage infection network; Vibrio; Tripartite interaction
Research affiliation: OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB3 Marine Ecology > FB3-EV Marine Evolutionary Ecology
OceanRep > The Future Ocean - Cluster of Excellence
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: Yes
DOI etc.: 10.1186/s12862-017-0930-2
ISSN: 1471-2148
Projects: Future Ocean
Date Deposited: 12 Apr 2017 07:55
Last Modified: 24 May 2019 13:20
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/37552

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