The role of sediment recycling in EM-1 inferred from Os, Pb, Hf, Nd, Sr isotope and trace element systematics of the Pitcairn hotspot.

Eisele, J., Sharma, M., Galer, S. J. G., Blichert-Toft, J., Devey, Colin W. and Hofmann, A. W. (2002) The role of sediment recycling in EM-1 inferred from Os, Pb, Hf, Nd, Sr isotope and trace element systematics of the Pitcairn hotspot. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 196 (3-4). pp. 197-212. DOI 10.1016/S0012-821X(01)00601-X.

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We present comprehensive radiogenic isotope (Os, Pb, Hf, Nd, Sr) and trace element data on basaltic lavas from Pitcairn Island and the Pitcairn seamounts and examine the origin of the enriched mantle isotopic signature (EM-1) found in these lavas. The 187Os/188Os ratios of the lavas range from 0.131 to 0.254, while those of the high-Os concentration samples (>50 pg/g) lie between 0.131 and 0.148. All 187Os/188Os ratios are higher than the bulk silicate Earth reference value of 0.127. Since ancient subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) is expected to have a 187Os/188Os ratio less than 0.127, it appears that recycled SCLM plays no role in the Pitcairn source. Variations in 187Os/188Os ratios appear to be unconnected with those of 206Pb/204Pb ratios in Pitcairn lavas, suggesting that Pb and Os isotopic variations are controlled by different factors. Modeling shows that variations in Pb isotopic compositions may mainly reflect the proportion of recycled sediment in the source, while those of 187Os/188Os ratios may reflect the proportion of peridotite mantle versus recycled oceanic crust. The occurrence of negative Nb anomalies in some of the lavas, a correlation between Nb anomaly and 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7036–0.7051), and extremely unradiogenic and strongly correlated Nd and Hf isotopic compositions (ϵNd of −5.9 to +1.1 and ϵHf of −5.3 to +2.2) together suggest that the Pitcairn mantle source contains a recycled continental crustal component. The slope of the ϵHf vs. ϵNd correlation is shallower for Pitcairn Island than for the Pitcairn seamounts or the global OIB array, and may be due to a variable ratio of recycled mud to sand in the Pitcairn source. A trace element mixing model also indicates the presence of small amounts of recycled pelagic and terrigenous sediment and permits variable amounts of depleted components such as recycled MORB, gabbro and depleted mantle. The 206Pb/204Pb ratios of the Pitcairn lavas vary between 17.47 and 18.10 and are very unradiogenic compared to those of other ocean island basalts. By contrast, 208Pb/204Pb ratios are high and relatively homogeneous at values of ∼39.0. This observation along with the measured Th/U ratios of the lavas, which range up to 14.1, indicate a long-term history of U loss in the Pitcairn source. In 207Pb/204Pb–206Pb/204Pb space, the data form a linear array that can be interpreted in terms of mixing between a minor recycled sediment end member and more depleted material. Lead isotopic compositions suitable for the recycled end member were investigated using a three-stage evolution model by Monte Carlo methods and suggest ages between 0.7 and 1.9 Ga for the recycled sediment. The relationships between measured Th/U and radiogenic 208Pb*/206Pb* ratios suggest that the isotopic arrays displayed by the lavas were produced by mixing, probably occurring during magma genesis.

Document Type: Article
Keywords: Pitcairn Island; hot spots; mantle; stable isotopes; osmium; hafnium; lead
Research affiliation: Kiel University
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: No
DOI etc.: 10.1016/S0012-821X(01)00601-X
ISSN: 0012-821X
Date Deposited: 18 Feb 2008 17:25
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2016 10:50

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