Recent developments in genome editing and applications in plant breeding.

Jung, Christian, Capistrano-Gossmann, Gina, Braatz, Janina, Sashidhar, Niharika, Melzer, Siegbert and Ordon, F. (2017) Recent developments in genome editing and applications in plant breeding. Plant Breeding, 13 . DOI 10.1111/pbr.12526.

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Abstract

Increasing genetic variation beyond natural variation is an important aim in plant breeding. In the past 70 years, random mutagenesis by irradiation or by chemicals has created numerous mutants which have been frequently used in breeding. However, their application is hampered by the mutational load due to many background mutations. In the past 10 years, new techniques for site‐directed mutagenesis have been introduced to plant breeding which are commonly referred to as “genome editing.” Among these, the CRISPR/Cas9 system turned out to be the most efficient and easy to apply. DNA is cleaved by a nuclease precisely at a target site where a mutation is likely to be beneficial. The DNA is healed by the cellular repair system either by error‐prone non‐homologous end joining or by homologous recombination, by which small DNA fragments can be inserted at the target site. In this review, we describe the application of targeted mutagenesis to crop plants and the modification of agronomically important traits, which could have direct impacts on plant breeding.

Document Type: Article
Keywords: CRISPR/Cas genetic engineering genetic modification mutagenesis
Research affiliation: Kiel University
Kiel University > Kiel Marine Science
OceanRep > The Future Ocean - Cluster of Excellence
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: No
DOI etc.: 10.1111/pbr.12526
ISSN: 0179-9541
Projects: Future Ocean
Date Deposited: 19 Dec 2017 11:16
Last Modified: 23 Sep 2019 21:14
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/40901

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