Evolution of the Quaternary melitite-nephelinite Herchenberg volcano (East Eifel).

Bednarz, Ulrich and Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich (1990) Evolution of the Quaternary melitite-nephelinite Herchenberg volcano (East Eifel). Bulletin of Volcanology, 52 (6). pp. 426-444. DOI 10.1007/BF00268924.

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Abstract

The Quaternary Herchenberg composite tephra cone (East Eifel, FR Germany) with an original bulk volume of 1.17·107 m3 (DRE of 8.2·106 m3) and dimensions of ca. 900·600·90 m (length·width·height) erupted in three main stages: (a) Initial eruptions along a NW-trending, 500-m-long fissure were dominantly Vulcanian in the northwest and Strombolian in the southeast. Removal of the unstable, underlying 20-m-thick Tertiary clays resulted in major collapse and repeated lateral caving of the crater. The northwestern Lower Cone 1 (LC1) was constructed by alternating Vulcanian and Strombolian eruptions. (b) Cone-building, mainly Strombolian eruptions resulted in two major scoria cones beginning initially in the northwest (Cone 1) and terminating in the southeast (Cones 2 and 3) following a period of simultaneous activity of cones 1 and 2. Lapilli deposits are subdivided by thin phreatomagmatic marker beds rich in Tertiary clays in the early stages and Devonian clasts in the later stages. Three dikes intruded radially into the flanks of cone 1. (c) The eruption and deposition of fine-grained uppermost layers (phreatomagmatic tuffs, accretionary lapilli, and Strombolian fallout lapilli) presumably from the northwestern center (cone 1) terminated the activity of Herchenberg volcano. The Herchenberg volcano is distinguished from most Strombolian scoria cones in the Eifel by (1) small volume of agglutinates in central craters, (2) scarcity of scoria bomb breccias, (3) well-bedded tephra deposits even in the proximal facies, (4) moderate fragmentation of tephra (small proportions of both ash and coarse lapilli/bomb-size fraction), (5) abundance of dense ellipsoidal juvenile lapilli, and (6) characteristic depositional cycles in the early eruptive stages beginning with laterally emplaced, fine-grained, xenolith-rich tephra and ending with fallout scoria lapilli. Herchenberg tephra is distinguished from maar deposits by (1) paucity of xenoliths, (2) higher depositional temperatures, (3) coarser grain size and thicker bedding, (4) absence of glassy quenched clasts except in the initial stages and late phreatomagmatic marker beds, and (5) predominance of Strombolian, cone-building activity. The characteristics of Herchenberg deposits are interpreted as due to a high proportion of magmatic volatiles (dominantly CO2) relative to low-viscosity magma during most of the eruptive activity.

Document Type: Article
Keywords: Devonian, Tephra, Caving Scoria Cone, Tephra Deposit
Research affiliation: OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB4 Dynamics of the Ocean Floor > FB4-MUHS Magmatic and Hydrothermal Systems
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: No
DOI etc.: 10.1007/BF00268924
ISSN: 0258-8900
Date Deposited: 02 Mar 2018 13:17
Last Modified: 02 Mar 2018 13:17
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/42112

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