Hot Upper Mantle Beneath the Tristan da Cunha Hotspot From Probabilistic Rayleigh-Wave Inversion and Petrological Modeling.

Bonadio, Raffaele, Geissler, Wolfram H., Lebedev, Sergei, Fullea, Javier, Ravenna, Matteo, Celli, Nicolas L., Jokat, Wilfried, Jegen, Marion , Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph and Baba, Kiyoshi (2018) Hot Upper Mantle Beneath the Tristan da Cunha Hotspot From Probabilistic Rayleigh-Wave Inversion and Petrological Modeling. Open Access Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 19 . pp. 1412-1428. DOI 10.1002/2017GC007347.

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Abstract

Understanding the enigmatic intraplate volcanism in the Tristan da Cunha region requires knowledge of the temperature of the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath it. We measured phase-velocity curves of Rayleigh waves using cross-correlation of teleseismic seismograms from an array of ocean-bottom seismometers around Tristan, constrained a region-average, shear-velocity structure, and inferred the temperature of the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath the hotspot. The ocean-bottom data set presented some challenges, which required data-processing and measurement approaches different from those tuned for land-based arrays of stations. Having derived a robust, phase-velocity curve for the Tristan area, we inverted it for a shear wave velocity profile using a probabilistic (Markov chain Monte Carlo) approach. The model shows a pronounced low-velocity anomaly from 70 to at least 120 km depth. VS in the low velocity zone is 4.1-4.2 km/s, not as low as reported for Hawaii (∼4.0 km/s), which probably indicates a less pronounced thermal anomaly and, possibly, less partial melting. Petrological modeling shows that the seismic and bathymetry data are consistent with a moderately hot mantle (mantle potential temperature of 1,410-1,430°C, an excess of about 50-120°C compared to the global average) and a melt fraction smaller than 1%. Both purely seismic inversions and petrological modeling indicate a lithospheric thickness of 65-70 km, consistent with recent estimates from receiver functions. The presence of warmer-than-average asthenosphere beneath Tristan is consistent with a hot upwelling (plume) from the deep mantle. However, the excess temperature we determine is smaller than that reported for some other major hotspots, in particular Hawaii.

Document Type: Article
Keywords: Asthenosphere, Lithosphere, Mantle plume, Mantle potential temperature, South Atlantic, Surface waves
Research affiliation: GFZ
AWI
OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB4 Dynamics of the Ocean Floor > FB4-GDY Marine Geodynamics
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: No
DOI etc.: 10.1002/2017GC007347
ISSN: 1525-2027
Projects: SPP 1375
Expeditions/Models/Experiments:
Date Deposited: 22 May 2018 08:40
Last Modified: 01 Feb 2019 15:05
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/43092

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