Variability and long-term changes of brominated VSLS at the tropical tropopause.

Tegtmeier, Susann, Atlas, Eliot, Quack, Birgit, Ziska, Franziska and Krüger, Kirstin (2019) Variability and long-term changes of brominated VSLS at the tropical tropopause. Open Access Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 2019 (490). pp. 1-44. DOI 10.5194/acp-2019-490.

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Abstract

We combine available observational data sets with Lagrangian atmospheric modelling in order to analyze the spatial and temporal variability of the CHBr3 injection into the stratosphere. Regional maxima with mixing ratios of up to 0.4–0.5 ppt at 17 km altitude are diagnosed to be over Central America (1) and over the Maritime Continent/West Pacific (2), both of which are confirmed by high-altitude aircraft campaigns. The CHBr3 maximum over Central America is caused by the co-occurrence of convectively-driven short transport time scales and strong regional sources, which in conjunction drive the seasonality of CHBr3 injection. Model results at a daily resolution reveal isolated, exceptionally high CHBr3 values in this region which are confirmed by measurements during the ACCENT campaign and do not occur in spatially or temporally averaged model fields. CHBr3 injection over the West Pacific is centered south of the equator due to strong oceanic sources underneath prescribed by the here applied bottom-up emission inventory. The globally strongest stratospheric CHBr3 injection of up to 0.6 ppt is diagnosed to occur over the region of India, Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea (3), however, no data from aircraft campaigns are available to confirm this finding. Interannual variability of stratospheric CHBr3 injection of 10–20 % is to a large part driven by the variability of coupled ocean-atmosphere circulation systems. Long-term changes, on the other hand, correlate with the regional SST trends resulting in positive trends of stratospheric CHBr3 injection over the West Pacific and Asian monsoon region and negative trends over the East Pacific. For the tropical mean, these opposite regional trends balance each other out resulting in a relatively weak positive trend of 0.017 ± 0.012 ppt Br/dec for 1979–2013, corresponding 3 % Br/dec. The overall contribution of CHBr3 together with CH2Br2 to the stratospheric halogen loading accounts for 4.7 ppt Br, in good agreement with existing studies, with 50 %/50 % being injected in form of source and product gases, respectively.

Document Type: Article
Research affiliation: OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB2 Marine Biogeochemistry > FB2-CH Chemical Oceanography
OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB1 Ocean Circulation and Climate Dynamics > FB1-ME Maritime Meteorology
Refereed: No
Open Access Journal?: Yes
DOI etc.: 10.5194/acp-2019-490
ISSN: 1680-7375
Projects: ROMIC THREAT
Date Deposited: 11 Jun 2019 10:15
Last Modified: 11 Jun 2019 10:15
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/46888

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