Season affects strength and direction of the interactive impacts of ocean warming and biotic stress in a coastal seaweed ecosystem.

Wahl, Martin , Werner, Franziska J., Buchholz, Björn, Raddatz, Stefanie, Graiff, Angelika , Matthiessen, Birte, Karsten, Ulf, Hiebenthal, Claas , Hamer, Jorin, Ito, Maysa, Gülzow, Elisa, Rilov, Gil and Guy-Haim, Tamar (2019) Season affects strength and direction of the interactive impacts of ocean warming and biotic stress in a coastal seaweed ecosystem. Open Access Limnology and Oceanography . DOI 10.1002/lno.11350.

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Abstract

The plea for using more “realistic,” community‐level, investigations to assess the ecological impacts of global change has recently intensified. Such experiments are typically more complex, longer, more expensive, and harder to interpret than simple organism‐level benchtop experiments. Are they worth the extra effort? Using outdoor mesocosms, we investigated the effects of ocean warming (OW) and acidification (OA), their combination (OAW), and their natural fluctuations on coastal communities of the western Baltic Sea during all four seasons. These communities are dominated by the perennial and canopy‐forming macrophyte Fucus vesiculosus—an important ecosystem engineer Baltic‐wide. We, additionally, assessed the direct response of organisms to temperature and pH in benchtop experiments, and examined how well organism‐level responses can predict community‐level responses to the dominant driver, OW. OW affected the mesocosm communities substantially stronger than acidification. OW provoked structural and functional shifts in the community that differed in strength and direction among seasons. The organism‐level response to OW matched well the community‐level response of a given species only under warm and cold thermal stress, that is, in summer and winter. In other seasons, shifts in biotic interactions masked the direct OW effects. The combination of direct OW effects and OW‐driven shifts of biotic interactions is likely to jeopardize the future of the habitat‐forming macroalga F. vesiculosus in the Baltic Sea. Furthermore, we conclude that seasonal mesocosm experiments are essential for our understanding of global change impact because they take into account the important fluctuations of abiotic and biotic pressures.

Document Type: Article
Research affiliation: Kiel University > Kiel Marine Science
OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB3 Marine Ecology > FB3-OEB Ökosystembiologie des Ozeans
Kiel University
OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB3 Marine Ecology > FB3-EOE-B Experimental Ecology - Benthic Ecology
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: No
DOI etc.: 10.1002/lno.11350
ISSN: 0024-3590
Projects: BIOACID, BaltMed
Date Deposited: 14 Nov 2019 08:35
Last Modified: 15 Nov 2019 09:27
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/48223

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