Eddy Study to Understand Physical-Chemical-Biological Coupling and the Biological Carbon Pump as a Function of Eddy Type off West Africa, Cruise No. M160, 23.11.2019 - 20.12.2019, Mindelo (Cabo Verde) - Mindelo (Cabo Verde).

Körtzinger, Arne , Andrae, Alexandra, Baschek, Burkard, Becker, Kevin, Behr, Hein-Dieter, Blandfort, Daniel, Calil, Paulo, Carrasco, Ruben, Dengler, Marcus , Devresse, Quentin, Engel, Anja , Fiedler, Björn, Fischer, Gerhard, Fischer, Tim , Flintrop, Clara, Fomba, Khanneh Wadinga, Golde, Sandra, Hahn, Tobias, Hauss, Helena , Hepach, Helmke , Heymann, Kerstin, Hieronymi, Martin , Horstmann, Jochen, Hufnagel, Lili, Iversen, Morten H., Karstensen, Johannes , Katzenmeier, Sven, Knudsen, Juri, Kock, Thomas, Krahmann, Gerd , Krasemann, Hansjörg, Merckelbach, Lucas, Moradi, Nasrollah, Nothof, Maren, Paulsen, Melf, Raeke, Andreas, Röttgers, Rüdiger, Schultze, Larissa and Stoeck, Thorsten (2020) Eddy Study to Understand Physical-Chemical-Biological Coupling and the Biological Carbon Pump as a Function of Eddy Type off West Africa, Cruise No. M160, 23.11.2019 - 20.12.2019, Mindelo (Cabo Verde) - Mindelo (Cabo Verde). Open Access . Gutachterpanel Forschungsschiffe, Bonn, Germany, 54 pp.

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Abstract

Cruise M160 is part of concerted MOSES/REEBUS Eddy Study featuring three major research expeditions (M156, M160, MSM104). It aims to develop both a qualitative and quantitative understanding of the role of physical-chemical-biological coupling in eddies for the biological pump. The study is part of the MOSES “Ocean Eddies” event chain, which follows three major hypotheses to be addressed by the MOSES/REEBUS field campaigns:
(1) Mesoscale and sub-mesoscale eddies play an important role in transferring energy along the energy cascade from the large-scale circulation to dissipation at the molecular level.
(2) Mesoscale and sub-mesoscale eddies are important drivers in determining onset, magnitude and characteristics of biological productivity in the ocean and contribute significantly to global primary production and particle export and transfer to the deep ocean.
(3) Mesoscale and sub-mesoscale eddies are important for shaping extreme biogeochemical environments (e.g., pH, oxygen) in the oceans, thus acting as a source/sink function for greenhouse gases.
In contrast to the other two legs, MOSES Eddy Study II during M160 did not include any benthic work but focused entirely on the pelagic dynamics within eddies. It accomplished a multi-disciplinary, multi-parameter and multi-platform study of two discrete cyclonic eddies in an unprecedented complexity. The pre-cruise search for discrete eddies suitable for detailed study during M160 had already started a few months prior to the cruise. Remote sensing data products (sea surface height, sea surface temperature, ocean color/chlorophyll a) were used in combination with eddy detection algorithms and numerical modelling to identify and track eddies in the entire eddy field off West Africa. In addition, 2 gliders and 1 waveglider had been set out from Mindelo/Cabo Verde for pre-cruise mapping of the potential working area north of the Cabo Verdean archipelago.
At the start of M160, a few suitable eddies – mostly of cyclonic type – had been identified, some of which were outside the safe operation range of the motorglider plane. As technical problems delayed the flight operations, the first eddy (center at 14.5°N/25°W) for detailed study was chosen to the southwest of the island of Fogo. It was decided to carry out a first hydrographic survey there followed by the deployment of a suite of instruments (gliders, waveglider, floats, drifter short-term mooring). Such instrumented, we left this first eddy and transited – via a strong anticyclonic feature southwest of the island of Santiago – to the region northeast of the island of Sal, i.e. in the working range of the glider plane. During the transit, a full suite of underway measurements as well as CTD/RO section along 22°W (16°-18.5°N) were carried in search for sub-surface expressions of anticyclonic eddy features.
In the northeast, we had identified the second strong cyclonic eddy (center at 18°N/22.5°W) which was chosen for detailed study starting with a complete hydrographic survey (ADCP, CTD/RO, other routine station work). After completion of the mesoscale work program, we identified a strong frontal region at the southwestern rim of the cyclonic eddy, which was chosen for the first sub-mesoscale study with aerial observation component. There, the first dye release experiment was carried out which consisted of the dye release itself followed by an intense multi-platforms study of the vertical and horizontal spreading of the initial dye streak. This work was
METEOR-Berichte, Cruise M160, Mindelo – Mindelo, 23.11.2019 4 – 20.12.2019
supported and partly guided by aerial observation of the research motorglider Stemme, which was still somewhat compromised by technical issues and meteorological conditions (high cloud cover, Saharan dust event). Nevertheless, this first dye release experiment was successful and showed rapid movement of the dynamic meandering front.
After completion of work on this second eddy and execution of a focused sampling program at the Cape Verde Ocean Observation, RV METEOR returned to the first eddy for continuation of the work started there in the beginning of the cruise. This was accompanied by a relocation of the airbase of Stemme from the international airport of Sal to the domestic airport of Fogo. The further execution of the eddy study at this first eddy, which again included a complete hydrographic survey followed by a mesoscale eddy study with dye release, was therefore possible with aerial observations providing important guidance for work on RV METEOR.
Overall, M160 accomplished an extremely intense and complex work program with 212 instrument deployments during station work, 137 h of observation with towed instruments and a wide range of underway measurements throughout the cruise. Up to about 30 individually tracked platforms (Seadrones, glider, wavegliders, drifters, floats) were in the water at the same time providing unprecedented and orchestrated observation capabilities in an eddy. All planned work components were achieved and all working groups acquired the expected numbers of instrument deployments and sampling opportunities.

Document Type: Report (Cruise Report)
Keywords: MOSES Eddy Study; R.V. Meteor; M160
Dewey Decimal Classification: 500 Natural Sciences and Mathematics > 550 Earth sciences & geology
500 Natural Sciences and Mathematics > 570 Life sciences; biology
Research affiliation: OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB2 Marine Biogeochemistry > FB2-CH Chemical Oceanography
OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB3 Marine Ecology > FB3-OEB Ökosystembiologie des Ozeans
OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB1 Ocean Circulation and Climate Dynamics > FB1-PO Physical Oceanography
OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB2 Marine Biogeochemistry > FB2-BI Biological Oceanography
Projects: MOSES, REEBUS
Expeditions/Models/Experiments:
Date Deposited: 28 May 2020 11:16
Last Modified: 19 Jun 2020 15:28
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/49764

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