Sedimente im arktischen Meereis - Eintrag, Charakterisierung und Quantifizierung.

Lindemann, Frank (1998) Sedimente im arktischen Meereis - Eintrag, Charakterisierung und Quantifizierung. (PhD/ Doctoral thesis), Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, Kiel, 124 pp.

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Abstract

Sediments in Arctic sea ice are important for erosion and redistribution and consequently a factor for the sediment budget of the Arctic Ocean. The processes leading to the incorporation of sediments into the ice are not understood in detail yet. In the present ·study, experiments on the incorporation of sediments were therefore conducted in ice tanks of The Hamburg Ship Model Basin (HSVA) in winter 1996/1997. These experiments showed that on average 75 % of the artificial sea-ice sediments were located in the brine-channel system. The sediments were scavenged from the water column by frazil ice. Sediments functioning as a nucleus for the formation of frazil ice were less important for the incorporation. Filtration in grease ice during relatively calm hydrodynamic conditions was probably an effective process to enrich sediments in the ice. W ave fields did not play an important role for the incorporation of sediments into the artificial sea ice.
During the expedition TRANSDRIFT III (TD III, October 1995), different types of natural, newly-formed sea ice (grease ice, nilas and young ice) were sampled in the inner Laptev Sea at the time of freeze-up. The incorporation of sediments took place during calm meteorological conditions then. The characteristics of the clay rnineral assemblages of these sediments served as references for sea-ice sediments which were sampled from first-year drift ice in the outer Laptev Sea and the adjacent Arctic Ocean during the POLARSTERN expedition ARK XIII (July - September 1995). Based on the clay rnineral assemblages, probable incorporation areas for the sediments in first-year drift ice could be statistically reconstructed in the inner Laptev Sea (eastern, central, and western Laptev Sea) as well as in adjacent regions.
Comparing the amounts of particulate organic carbon (POC) in sea-ice sediments and in surface sediments from the shelves of potential incorporation areas often reveals higher values in sea-ice sediments (TD III: 3.6 %DM; ARK Xl/1: 2.3 %DM). This enrichment of POC is probably due to the incorporation process into the sea ice, as could be deducted from maceral analysis and Rock-Eva! pyrolysis. Both methods were applied in the present study to particulate organic material (POM) from sea-ice sediments for the first time. lt was shown that the POM of the sea-ice sediments from the Laptev Sea and the adjacent Arctic Ocean was dominated by reworked, strongly fragmented, allochthonous (terrigenous) material. This terrigenous component accounted for more than 75 % of all counted macerals. The autochthonous (marine) component was also strongly fragmented, and higher in the sediments from newly-formed sea ice (24 % of all counted macerals) as compared to first-year drift ice (17 % of all counted macerals). Average hydroge indices confirmed this pattern and were in the transition zone between kerogen types II and III (TD III: 275 mg KW/ g POC; ARK XI/1: 200 mg KW/g POC).
The sediment loads quantified in natural sea ice (TD III: 33.6 mg L-1, ARK Xl/1: 49.0 mg L-1) indicated that sea-ice sediments are an important factor for the sediment budget in the Laptev Sea. In particular during the incorporation phase in autumn and early winter, about 12 % of the sediment load imported annually by rivers into the Laptev Sea can be incorporated into sea ice and redistributed during calm meteorological conditions. Single entrainment events can incorporate about 35 % of the river input into the sea ice (ca. 9 x 106 t) and export it via the Trans polar Drift from the Eurasian shelf to the Fram Strait.

Document Type: Thesis (PhD/ Doctoral thesis)
Thesis Advisor: Thiede, Jörn
Additional Information: Die Printausgabe ist in der GEOMAR-Bibliothek vorhanden.
Keywords: Sediment, Meereis, Charakterisierung, Quantifizierung, Arktis
Research affiliation: OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB1 Ocean Circulation and Climate Dynamics > FB1-P-OZ Paleo-Oceanography
Projects: Transdrift
Date Deposited: 22 Jun 2020 09:06
Last Modified: 22 Jun 2020 09:27
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/49882

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