Integrating Molecular Networking and 1H NMR Spectroscopy for Isolation of Bioactive Metabolites from the Persian Gulf Sponge Axinella sinoxea.

Mohsenian-Kouchaksaraee, Reza, Moridi Farimani, Mahdi, Li, Fengjie, Nazemi, Melika and Tasdemir, Deniz (2020) Integrating Molecular Networking and 1H NMR Spectroscopy for Isolation of Bioactive Metabolites from the Persian Gulf Sponge Axinella sinoxea. Open Access Marine Drugs, 18 (7). Art.Nr. 366. DOI 10.3390/md18070366.

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Abstract

The geographic position, highly fluctuating sea temperatures and hypersalinity make Persian Gulf an extreme environment. Although this unique environment has high biodiversity dominated by invertebrates, its potential in marine biodiscovery has largely remained untapped. Herein, we aimed at a detailed analysis of the metabolome and bioactivity profiles of the marine sponge Axinella sinoxea collected from the northeast coast of the Persian Gulf in Iran. The crude extract and its Kupchan subextracts were tested in multiple in-house bioassays, and the crude extract and its CHCl3-soluble portion showed in vitro antibacterial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Enterococcus faecium (Efm). A molecular networking (MN)-based dereplication strategy by UPLC-MS/MS revealed the presence of phospholipids and steroids, while 1H NMR spectroscopy indicated the presence of additional metabolites, such as diketopiperazines (DKPs). Integrated MN and 1H NMR analyses on both the crude and CHCl3 extracts combined with an antibacterial activity-guided isolation approach afforded eight metabolites: a new diketopiperazine, (-)-cyclo(L-trans-Hyp-L-Ile) (8); a known diketopiperazine, cyclo(L-trans-Hyp-L-Phe) (7); two known phospholipids, 1-O-hexadecyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (1) and 1-O-octadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (2); two known steroids, 3β-hydroxycholest-5-ene-7,24-dione (3) and (22E)-3β-hydroxycholesta-5,22-diene-7,24-dione (4); two known monoterpenes, loliolide (5) and 5-epi-loliolide (6). The chemical structures of the isolates were elucidated by a combination of NMR spectroscopy, HRMS and [α]D analyses. All compounds were tested against MRSA and Efm, and compound 3 showed moderate antibacterial activity against MRSA (IC50 value 70 μg/mL). This is the first study that has dealt with chemical and bioactivity profiling of A. sinoxea leading to isolation and characterization of pure sponge metabolites.

Document Type: Article
Keywords: marine sponge; Axinella sinoxea; Persian Gulf; molecular networking; 1H NMR spectroscopy; diketopiperazine; steroid; monoterpene
Research affiliation: OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB3 Marine Ecology > FB3-MN Marine natural products chemistry
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: Yes
DOI etc.: 10.3390/md18070366
ISSN: 1660-3397
Date Deposited: 16 Jul 2020 10:57
Last Modified: 12 Aug 2020 08:28
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/50144

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