Mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of hydrothermal alteration processes in the active, submarine, felsic-hosted PACMANUS field, Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea.

Lackschewitz, Klas, Devey, Colin W. , Stoffers, Peter, Botz, Reiner, Eisenhauer, Anton , Kummetz, M., Schmidt, Mark and Singer, A. (2004) Mineralogical, geochemical and isotopic characteristics of hydrothermal alteration processes in the active, submarine, felsic-hosted PACMANUS field, Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 68 (21). pp. 4405-4427. DOI 10.1016/j.gca.2004.04.016.

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Abstract

During ODP Leg 193, 4 sites were drilled in the active PACMANUS hydrothermal field on the crest of the felsic Pual Ridge to examine the vertical and lateral variations in mineralization and alteration patterns. We present new data on clay mineral assemblages, clay and whole rock chemistry and clay mineral strontium and oxygen isotopic compositions of altered rocks from a site of diffuse low-temperature venting (Snowcap, Site 1188) and a site of high-temperature venting (Roman Ruins, Site 1189) in order to investigate the water-rock reactions and associated elemental exchanges. The volcanic succession at Snowcap has been hydrothermally altered, producing five alteration zones: (1) chlorite +/- illite-cristobalite-plagioclase alteration apparently overprinted locally by pyrophyllite bleaching at temperatures of 260-310degreesC; (2) chlorite +/- mixed-layer clay alteration at temperatures of 230degreesC; (3) chlorite and illite alteration; (4) illite and chlorite +/- illite mixed-layer alteration at temperatures of 250-260degreesC; and (5) illite +/- chlorite alteration at 290-300degreesC. Felsic rocks recovered from two holes (1189A and 1189B) at Roman Ruins, although very close together, show differing alteration features. Hole 1189A is characterized by a uniform chlorite-illite alteration formed at similar to250degreesC, overprinted by quartz veining at 350degreesC. In contrast, four alteration zones occur in Hole 1189B: (1) illite chlorite alteration formed at similar to300degreesC; (2) chlorite +/- illite alteration at 235degreesC; (3) chlorite illite and. mixed layer clay alteration; and (4) chlorite illite alteration at 220degreesC. Mass balance calculations indicate that the chloritization, illitization and bleaching (silica-pyrophyllite assemblages) alteration stages are accompanied by different chemical changes relative to a calculated pristine precursor lava. The element Cr appears to have a general enrichment in the altered samples from PACMANUS. The clay concentrate data show that Cr and Cu are predominantly present in the pyrophyllites. Illite shows a significant enrichment for Cs and Cu relative to the bulk altered samples. Considerations of mineral stability allow us to place some constraints on fluid chemistry. Hydrothermal fluid pH for the chloritization and illitization was neutral to slightly acidic and relatively acidic for the pyrophyllite alteration. In general the fluids, especially from Roman Ruins and at intermediate depths below Snowcap, show only a small proportion of seawater mixing (<10%). Fluids in shallow and deep parts of the Snowcap holes, in contrast, show stronger seawater influence. Copyright (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

Document Type: Article
Keywords: Geochemistry; BACK-ARC BASIN; JUAN-DE-FUCA; CLAY-MINERALS; PARTITION-COEFFICIENTS; TRACE-ELEMENTS; MIDDLE-VALLEY; OCEAN CRUST; SEA-FLOOR; SMECTITE; SYSTEM
Research affiliation: OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB2 Marine Biogeochemistry > FB2-MG Marine Geosystems
Kiel University
UNSPECIFIED
OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB4 Dynamics of the Ocean Floor > FB4-MUHS Magmatic and Hydrothermal Systems
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: No
DOI etc.: 10.1016/j.gca.2004.04.016
ISSN: 0016-7037
Projects: ODP
Date Deposited: 24 Feb 2009 10:57
Last Modified: 08 Sep 2017 09:01
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/1049

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