Low Coseismic Shear Stress on the Tohoku-Oki Megathrust Determined from Laboratory Experiments.

Ujiie, K., Tanaka, H., Saito, T., Tsutsumi, A., Mori, J. J., Kameda, J., Brodsky, E. E., Chester, F. M., Eguchi, N., Toczko, S., Anderson, L., Behrmann, Jan H. , Bose, S., Conin, M., Cook, B., Fulton, P., Hino, R., Hirose, T., Ikari, M., Ishikawa, T., Jeppson, T., Kido, Y., Kirkpatrick, J., Kodaira, S., Lin, W., Maeda, L., Mishima, T., Moore, J. C., Nakamura, Y., Regalla, C., Remitti, F., Rowe, C., Saffer, D., Saito, S., Sample, J., Sanada, Y., Wolfson-Schwehr, M., Sun, T., Takai, K., Toy, V. and Yang, T. and Expedition 343 and 343T Scientists (2013) Low Coseismic Shear Stress on the Tohoku-Oki Megathrust Determined from Laboratory Experiments. Science, 342 (6163). pp. 1211-1214. DOI 10.1126/science.1243485.

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Abstract

Large coseismic slip was thought to be unlikely to occur on the shallow portions of plate-boundary
thrusts, but the 11 March 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake [moment magnitude (Mw) = 9.0] produced
huge displacements of ~50 meters near the Japan Trench with a resultant devastating tsunami.
To investigate the mechanisms of the very large fault movements, we conducted high-velocity
(1.3 meters per second) friction experiments on samples retrieved from the plate-boundary
thrust associated with the earthquake. The results show a small stress drop with very low peak
and steady-state shear stress. The very low shear stress can be attributed to the abundance
of weak clay (smectite) and thermal pressurization effects, which can facilitate fault slip.
This behavior provides an explanation for the huge shallow slip that occurred during the
earthquake.

Document Type: Article
Additional Information: Additional Author Notes (From: Suppl. material) Expedition 343 and 343T Scientists include: Louise Anderson (University of Leicester, UK), Jan H. Behrmann (GEOMAR, Germany), Santanu Bose (University of Calcutta, India), Marianne Conin (CEREGE, France), Becky Cook (University of Southampton, UK), Patrick Fulton (University of California Santa Cruz), Ryota Hino (Tohoku University, Japan), Takehiro Hirose (JAMSTEC, Japan), Matt Ikari (University of Bremen, Germany), Tsuyoshi Ishikawa (JAMSTEC, Japan), Tamara Jeppson (University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA), Yukari Kido (JAMSTEC, Japan), James Kirkpatrick (Colorado State University, USA), Shuichi Kodaira (JAMSTEC, Japan), Weiren Lin (JAMSTEC, Japan), Lena Maeda (JAMSTEC, Japan), Toshiaki Mishima (Osaka City University, Japan), J. Casey Moore (University of California Santa Cruz), Yasuyuki Nakamura (JAMSTEC, Japan), Christine Regalla (The Pennsylvania State University, USA), Francesca Remitti (Universitá Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy), Christie Rowe (McGill University, Canada), Demian Saffer (The Pennsylvania State University, USA), Saneatsu Saito (JAMSTEC, Japan), James Sample (Northern Arizona University, USA), Yoshinori Sanada (JAMSTEC, Japan), Monica Wolfson-Schwehr
Keywords: IODP, Expedition 343, earthquake, Tohoku, Japan, fault, friction, high speed, experiment
Research affiliation: OceanRep > The Future Ocean - Cluster of Excellence
OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB4 Dynamics of the Ocean Floor > FB4-GDY Marine Geodynamics
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: No
DOI etc.: 10.1126/science.1243485
ISSN: 0036-8075
Projects: Future Ocean
Expeditions/Models/Experiments:
Date Deposited: 18 Dec 2013 09:54
Last Modified: 09 Sep 2016 11:23
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/22657

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