From the lavas to the gabbros: 1.25 km of geochemical characterization of upper oceanic crust at ODP/IODP Site 1256, eastern equatorial Pacific.

Höfig, Tobias, Geldmacher, Jörg , Hoernle, Kaj , Hauff, Folkmar, Duggen, Svend and Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter (2014) From the lavas to the gabbros: 1.25 km of geochemical characterization of upper oceanic crust at ODP/IODP Site 1256, eastern equatorial Pacific. Lithos (210/211). pp. 289-312. DOI 10.1016/j.lithos.2014.08.013.

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Abstract

Here we present trace element and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb (double spike) isotopic data covering the entire igneous section of oceanic crust drilled at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP)/Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site 1256 on the Cocos Plate. The penetrated interval extends from the upper lavas through the sheeted dike complex to the gabbroic plutonic rocks, formed during superfast spreading at the mid-Miocene equatorial East Pacific Rise. The data are used to characterize the effects of chemical alteration, resulting from convection of seawater and hydrothermal fluids, on the trace element and isotopic composition of oceanic crust. Compared to normal mid-ocean-ridge basalt, the igneous basement of Site 1256 (Holes 1256C/D) is isotopically slightly enriched but shows only narrow downhole variations in Nd-Hf-Pb isotope ratios: 143Nd/144Nd = 0.513089 ± 0.000028 (2σ), 176Hf/177Hf = 0.283194 ± 0.000033 (2σ), 206Pb/204Pb = 18.61 ± 0.11 (2σ), 207Pb/204Pb = 15.521 ± 0.014 (2σ), 208Pb/204Pb = 38.24 ± 0.15 (2σ). We believe that this minor variability is mainly of primary (magmatic) origin. The Sr isotopic composition shows considerably larger variation and, as expected, serves as sensitive tracer of seawater influence, which is particularly pronounced in the lava-dike transition zone and the sheeted dikes. The seawater influence is most prominent in a highly metal sulfide-enriched breccia layer encountered in the transition zone with 87Sr/86Sr of ~ 0.706, indicating a maximum water-rock mixing ratio of ~ 12. However, compared to the igneous section drilled at Site 504 (Hole 504B), which formed at intermediate, i.e., slower spreading rates at the Galápagos Spreading Center and hosting a much thicker sulfide-rich stockwork zone, the average intensity of water-rock interaction is lower. This is expressed by lesser mobility of base metals, narrower variability of alteration-sensitive incompatible elements, and less radiogenic Sr isotopic compositions on average at Site 1256. The amount of metal sulfide precipitation seems to be positively correlated with the degree of hydrothermal overprint. The less intense alteration of the Site 1256 transition zone, compared to Site 504, most likely reflects the higher rate of spreading, eventually resulting in a shorter period of time of continuous exposure to hydrothermal convection at the ridge crest. The observed seafloor alteration, leading to modified radiogenic parent/daughter ratios in the Site 1256 rocks, is ultimately not sufficient to develop time-integrative high 206Pb/204Pb and moderate 87Sr/86Sr ratios, as being characteristic of the HIMU (high μ = high 238U/204Pb) mantle signature proposed to originate from hydrothermally altered, subducted oceanic crust. Therefore, additional modification during the subduction process must be taken into account.

Document Type: Article
Additional Information: WOS:000347507600019
Keywords: Site 1256; IODP; oceanic crust; superfast spreading; hydrothermal alteration; HIMU isotopic evolution
Research affiliation: Kiel University
OceanRep > The Future Ocean - Cluster of Excellence
OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB4 Dynamics of the Ocean Floor > FB4-MUHS Magmatic and Hydrothermal Systems
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: No
DOI etc.: 10.1016/j.lithos.2014.08.013
ISSN: 0024-4937
Related URLs:
Projects: IODP/ODP, Future Ocean
Date Deposited: 29 Sep 2014 11:09
Last Modified: 13 Sep 2017 07:59
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/25655

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