Guidelines for long-term monitoring.

Wallmann, Klaus (2015) Guidelines for long-term monitoring. Open Access . ECO2 Deliverable, D11.3 . ECO2 Project Office, Kiel, Germany, 15 pp. DOI 10.3289/ECO2_D11.3.

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ECO2 conducted a comprehensive offshore field programme at the Norwegian storage sites Sleipner and Snøhvit and at several natural CO2 seepage sites in order to identify potential pathways for CO2 leakage through the overburden, monitor seep sites at the seabed, track and trace the spread of CO2 in ambient bottom waters, and study the response of benthic biota to CO2. Based on its extensive field programme ECO2 developed guidelines for the monitoring of sub-seabed storage sites. ECO2 recommends that overburden, seabed, and water column should be surveyed applying the following techniques: i) 3-D seismic imaging of seals and overburden, ii) high-resolution bathymetry/backscatter mapping of the seabed, iii) hydro-acoustic imaging of shallow gas accumulations in the seabed and gas bubbles ascending into the water column, iv) video/photo imaging of biota at the seabed, v) chemical detection of dissolved CO2 and related parameters in ambient bottom waters. Additional targeted studies have to be conducted if active formation water seeps, gas seeps, and
pockmarks with deep roots reaching into the storage formation occur at the seabed. These sites have to be revisited on a regular basis to determine emission rates of gases and fluids and exclude that seepage is invigorated and pockmarks are re-activated by the storage operation. Baseline studies serve to determine the natural variability against which the response of the storage complex to the storage operation has to be evaluated. All measurements being part of the monitoring program, thus, need to be performed during the baseline study prior to the onset of the storage operation to assess the spatial and temporal variability of leakage-related structures, parameters, and processes.

Document Type: Report (Project Report)
Funder compliance: info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/FP7/265847
Keywords: ECO2 Project
Research affiliation: OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB2 Marine Biogeochemistry > FB2-MG Marine Geosystems
Open Access Journal?: Yes
DOI etc.: 10.3289/ECO2_D11.3
Related URLs:
Projects: ECO2
Date Deposited: 30 Jun 2015 10:34
Last Modified: 11 Mar 2019 09:35

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