Magmatism, serpentinization and life: Insights through drilling the Atlantis Massif (IODP Expedition 357).

Früh-Green, Gretchen L., Orcutt, Beth N., Rouméjon, Stéphane, Lilley, Marvin D., Morono, Yuki, Cotterill, Carol, Green, Sophie, Escartin, Javier, John, Barbara E., McCaig, Andrew M., Cannat, Mathilde, Ménez, Bénédicte, Schwarzenbach, Esther M., Williams, Morgan J., Morgan, Sally, Lang, Susan Q., Schrenk, Matthew O., Brazelton, William J., Akizawa, Norikatsu, Boschi, Chiara, Dunkel, Kristina G., Quéméneur, Marianne, Whattam, Scott A., Mayhew, Lisa, Harris, Michelle, Bayrakci, Gaye, Behrmann, Jan Hinrich , Herrero-Bervera, Emilio, Hesse, Kirsten, Liu, Hai-Quan, Ratnayake, Amila Sandaruwan, Twing, Katrina, Weis, Dominique, Zhao, Rui and Bilenker, Laura (2018) Magmatism, serpentinization and life: Insights through drilling the Atlantis Massif (IODP Expedition 357). Lithos, 323 . pp. 137-155. DOI 10.1016/j.lithos.2018.09.012.

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Abstract

Highlights

• Seabed rock drills and real-time fluid monitoring for first time in ocean drilling
• First time recovery of continuous sequences along oceanic detachment fault zone
• Highly heterogeneous rock type and alteration in shallow detachment fault zone
• High methane and hydrogen concentrations in Atlantis Massif shallow basement
• Oceanic serpentinites potentially provide important niches for microbial life

Abstract

IODP Expedition 357 used two seabed drills to core 17 shallow holes at 9 sites across Atlantis Massif ocean core complex (Mid-Atlantic Ridge 30°N). The goals of this expedition were to investigate serpentinization processes and microbial activity in the shallow subsurface of highly altered ultramafic and mafic sequences that have been uplifted to the seafloor along a major detachment fault zone. More than 57 m of core were recovered, with borehole penetration ranging from 1.3 to 16.4 meters below seafloor, and core recovery as high as 75% of total penetration in one borehole. The cores show highly heterogeneous rock types and alteration associated with changes in bulk rock chemistry that reflect multiple phases of magmatism, fluid-rock interaction and mass transfer within the detachment fault zone. Recovered ultramafic rocks are dominated by pervasively serpentinized harzburgite with intervals of serpentinized dunite and minor pyroxenite veins; gabbroic rocks occur as melt impregnations and veins. Dolerite intrusions and basaltic rocks represent the latest magmatic activity. The proportion of mafic rocks is volumetrically less than the amount of mafic rocks recovered previously by drilling the central dome of Atlantis Massif at IODP Site U1309. This suggests a different mode of melt accumulation in the mantle peridotites at the ridge-transform intersection and/or a tectonic transposition of rock types within a complex detachment fault zone. The cores revealed a high degree of serpentinization and metasomatic alteration dominated by talc-amphibole-chlorite overprinting. Metasomatism is most prevalent at contacts between ultramafic and mafic domains (gabbroic and/or doleritic intrusions) and points to channeled fluid flow and silica mobility during exhumation along the detachment fault. The presence of the mafic lenses within the serpentinites and their alteration to mechanically weak talc, serpentine and chlorite may also be critical in the development of the detachment fault zone and may aid in continued unroofing of the upper mantle peridotite/gabbro sequences.

New technologies were also developed for the seabed drills to enable biogeochemical and microbiological characterization of the environment. An in situ sensor package and water sampling system recorded real-time variations in dissolved methane, oxygen, pH, oxidation reduction potential (Eh), and temperature and during drilling and sampled bottom water after drilling. Systematic excursions in these parameters together with elevated hydrogen and methane concentrations in post-drilling fluids provide evidence for active serpentinization at all sites. In addition, chemical tracers were delivered into the drilling fluids for contamination testing, and a borehole plug system was successfully deployed at some sites for future fluid sampling. A major achievement of IODP Expedition 357 was to obtain microbiological samples along a west–east profile, which will provide a better understanding of how microbial communities evolve as ultramafic and mafic rocks are altered and emplaced on the seafloor. Strict sampling handling protocols allowed for very low limits of microbial cell detection, and our results show that the Atlantis Massif subsurface contains a relatively low density of microbial life.

Document Type: Article
Keywords: IODP Expedition 357, Atlantis Massif, Detachment faulting, Serpentinization, Si metasomatism, Deep biosphere
Research affiliation: NOC
OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB4 Dynamics of the Ocean Floor > FB4-GDY Marine Geodynamics
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: No
DOI etc.: 10.1016/j.lithos.2018.09.012
ISSN: 0024-4937
Projects: IODP
Expeditions/Models/Experiments:
Date Deposited: 25 Sep 2018 14:30
Last Modified: 01 Feb 2019 15:16
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/44385

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