Milankovitch frequencies in tephra records at volcanic arcs: The relation of kyr-scale cyclic variations in volcanism to global climate changes.

Kutterolf, Steffen, Schindlbeck, Julie C. , Jegen, Marion, Freundt, Armin and Straub, Susanne M. (2019) Milankovitch frequencies in tephra records at volcanic arcs: The relation of kyr-scale cyclic variations in volcanism to global climate changes. Quaternary Science Reviews, 204 . pp. 1-16. DOI 10.1016/j.quascirev.2018.11.004.

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Supplementary data:

Abstract

Highlights

The increase in volcanic activity after the last glacial maximum observed on Iceland has led to one of the most fascinating hypothesis in science in the last decades: that deglaciation may force volcanism. We:

- Re-analyzed four longer tephra records with the same statistical method and demonstrated that all contain the ∼41 kyr and ∼100 kyr Millankovitch periodicities.
- The frequency spectra of the tephra and δ18O records are significantly correlated supporting the hypothesis that orbital-driven global climate changes interact with the volcanic eruption frequency regionally and globally.
- However, the simultaneous analysis of the four best-characterized tephra records shows that correlations and associated time lags suffer from a number of uncertainties including the nature and quality of tephra time series, a wide range in geographic latitudes and geological settings, as well as applied statistical methods

Therefore more precise tephra time series (preservation and age optimized) from different regions (glaciated versus non-glaciated) and geological settings (island arcs, continental arcs, intraplate) are needed together with standardized statistical analysis to decipher the impact of these factors on a global perspective of how climate may control volcanism.
Abstract

The increase in volcanic activity after the last glacial maximum observed on Iceland has led to one of the most fascinating hypothesis in science in the last decades: that deglaciation may force volcanism. Consequently, tephrostratigraphic records of sufficient length that cover multiple glacial cycles have been used to test whether such relationships hold systematically through the Quaternary. Here we review such tephra records that have been linked with climate proxy records such as δ18O in marine sediments, which is a measure of sea-level change and which is thought to be orbitally forced, as it exhibits the characteristic Milankovitch periodicities of precession (∼23 kyr), obliquity (∼41 kyr) and eccentricity (∼100 kyr).

Statistical analyses have identified these periodicities also in long tephra records from different latitudes and geotectonic settings, as well as in compiled semi-global records. These studies detect Milankovitch periods in their tephra record, and also a phase shift relative to the δ18O record in such that periods of increased eruption frequencies coincide with the deglaciation period at the glacial/interglacial transition when ice and water loads on the lithosphere change most rapidly. However, there are also disparities in results and interpretations, which may be attributable to the different methods of analysis applied by the studies.

We have therefore re-analyzed the four best-characterized tephra records by the same methods. We distinguish between analysis in the frequency domain, a novel approach, and analysis in the time domain, which has been used in previous studies. Analysis in the frequency domain identifies harmonic frequencies that arise from the binary nature of the tephra records and complicate the identification of primary frequencies. However, we show that all four records show spectral density peaks near the main Milankovitch periodicities of 41 and 100 kyr, and that they produce meaningful and significant statistical correlations with each other and the global δ18O record but not with random time series. Although the time-domain correlations with δ18O roughly confirm phase shifts implying peak volcanism during deglaciation, correlation coefficients arising from very noisy records are generally too low for precise constraints on the relative timing.

These deficiencies presently hamper the recognition of the physical mechanisms through which global climate changes affect volcanism at both, high-latitude glaciated regions and low-latitude non-glaciated regions.

Document Type: Article
Keywords: Quaternary, Eruption frequencies, Cyclicities, Climate, Tephra time series, Milankovitch, Statistics
Research affiliation: OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB4 Dynamics of the Ocean Floor > FB4-GDY Marine Geodynamics
OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB4 Dynamics of the Ocean Floor > FB4-MUHS Magmatic and Hydrothermal Systems
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: No
DOI etc.: 10.1016/j.quascirev.2018.11.004
ISSN: 0277-3791
Projects: IODP
Date Deposited: 10 Dec 2018 12:46
Last Modified: 12 Dec 2018 14:15
URI: http://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/44913

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