Global in situ Observations of Essential Climate and Ocean Variables at the Air–Sea Interface.

Centurioni, Luca R., Turton, Jon, Lumpkin, Rick, Braasch, Lancelot, Brassington, Gary, Chao, Yi, Charpentier, Etienne, Chen, Zhaohui, Corlett, Gary, Dohan, Kathleen, Donlon, Craig, Gallage, Champika, Hormann, Verena, Ignatov, Alexander, Ingleby, Bruce, Jensen, Robert, Kelly-Gerreyn, Boris A., Koszalka, Inga Monika , Lin, Xiaopei, Lindstrom, Eric, Maximenko, Nikolai, Merchant, Christopher J., Minnett, Peter, O’Carroll, Anne, Paluszkiewicz, Theresa, Poli, Paul, Poulain, Pierre-Marie, Reverdin, Gilles, Sun, Xiujun, Swail, Val, Thurston, Sidney, Wu, Lixin, Yu, Lisan, Wang, Bin and Zhang, Dongxiao (2019) Global in situ Observations of Essential Climate and Ocean Variables at the Air–Sea Interface. Open Access Frontiers in Marine Science, 6 . Art.Nr. 419. DOI 10.3389/fmars.2019.00419.

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The air–sea interface is a key gateway in the Earth system. It is where the atmosphere sets the ocean in motion, climate/weather-relevant air–sea processes occur, and pollutants (i.e., plastic, anthropogenic carbon dioxide, radioactive/chemical waste) enter the sea. Hence, accurate estimates and forecasts of physical and biogeochemical processes at this interface are critical for sustainable blue economy planning, growth, and disaster mitigation. Such estimates and forecasts rely on accurate and integrated in situ and satellite surface observations. High-impact uses of ocean surface observations of essential ocean/climate variables (EOVs/ECVs) include (1) assimilation into/validation of weather, ocean, and climate forecast models to improve their skill, impact, and value; (2) ocean physics studies (i.e., heat, momentum, freshwater, and biogeochemical air–sea fluxes) to further our understanding and parameterization of air–sea processes; and (3) calibration and validation of satellite ocean products (i.e., currents, temperature, salinity, sea level, ocean color, wind, and waves). We review strengths and limitations, impacts, and sustainability of in situ ocean surface observations of several ECVs and EOVs. We draw a 10-year vision of the global ocean surface observing network for improved synergy and integration with other observing systems (e.g., satellites), for modeling/forecast efforts, and for a better ocean observing governance. The context is both the applications listed above and the guidelines of frameworks such as the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) and Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) (both co-sponsored by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, IOC–UNESCO; the World Meteorological Organization, WMO; the United Nations Environment Programme, UNEP; and the International Science Council, ISC). Networks of multiparametric platforms, such as the global drifter array, offer opportunities for new and improved in situ observations. Advances in sensor technology (e.g., low-cost wave sensors), high-throughput communications, evolving cyberinfrastructures, and data information systems with potential to improve the scope, efficiency, integration, and sustainability of the ocean surface observing system are explored.

Document Type: Article
Research affiliation: Scripps
OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB1 Ocean Circulation and Climate Dynamics > FB1-PO Physical Oceanography
Woods Hole
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: Yes
DOI etc.: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00419
ISSN: 2296-7745
Date Deposited: 02 Sep 2019 08:20
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2020 09:13

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