Extreme changes of the Arctic Ocean during and after IPY 2007/2008.

Timokhov, Leonid, Ashik, Igor, Dmitrenko, Igor, Hoelemann, Jens, Kassens, Heidemarie, Kirillov, Sergey, Polyakov, Igor and Sokolov, Vladimir (2012) Extreme changes of the Arctic Ocean during and after IPY 2007/2008. Open Access Polarforschung, 81 (2). pp. 85-102. DOI hdl:10013/epic.40200.d001.

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Large-scale features of Arctic Ocean temperature and salinity distributions observed during 2007-2009 are described and discussed in the context of historical observation in order to document long-term variations. Oceanographic observations carried out in the frame of the International Polar Year (IPY 2007/2008) demonstrated unique conditions in the Arctic Ocean and seas during that period. For example, analyses of upper ocean temperature
and salinity patterns 2007-2009 revealed an apparent frontal zone separating the Eurasian and Canadian Basins. We found that after 2007 the temperature and salinity trends of the surface layer of the Arctic Ocean followed the same trajectory as in the past, however their regional distribution and intensity changed. The average salinity in the surface 5-50 m layer of the Eurasian Basin in winter of 2007-2009 was higher than in the 1950s and 1970s, but did not exceed the average salinity in the early 1990s. In the Canadian Basin, the upper ocean salinity in 2007-2009 was much lower than in the 1950s-1960s. Volumetric analysis of water masses demonstrated a general increase of volume of the intermediate (150-900 m depth range) Atlantic Water (AW) temperature, with substantial rise of the upper boundary of the AW. The thermal expansion of AW in the Arctic Basin is unique during the last 20 years. The most distinct variations of the hydrographic conditions were observed in the Canadian Basin. In general, the maximum of the AW temperature decreased in 2009 relative to 2007 and the upper boundary became shallower by 50 to 150 m the Eurasian Basin. The AW salinity in 2007-2009 was not exceptional during the IPY. Observations in the deeper layers indicated that the bottom waters have become slightly warmer and less saline.

Document Type: Article
Keywords: Temperature; salinity; Arctic Ocean
Research affiliation: OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB1 Ocean Circulation and Climate Dynamics > FB1-P-OZ Paleo-Oceanography
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: Yes
Publisher: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Polarforschung; Alfred-Wegener-Institu für Polar- und Meeresforschung
Projects: Polynya, Laptev Sea System
Date Deposited: 22 Nov 2012 12:40
Last Modified: 23 Sep 2019 23:03
URI: https://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/19250

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