Mixed layer depth dominates over upwelling in regulating the seasonality of ecosystem functioning in the Peruvian Upwelling System.

Xue, Tianfei , Frenger, Ivy , Prowe, A. E. Friederike , Jose, Yonss Saranga and Oschlies, Andreas (2022) Mixed layer depth dominates over upwelling in regulating the seasonality of ecosystem functioning in the Peruvian Upwelling System. Open Access Biogeosciences (BG), 19 . pp. 455-475. DOI 10.5194/bg-19-455-2022.

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The Peruvian Upwelling System hosts an extremely high productive marine ecosystem. Observations show that the Peruvian Upwelling System is the only Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS) with an out-of-phase relationship of seasonal surface chlorophyll concentrations and upwelling intensity. This "seasonal paradox" triggers the questions: (1) what is the uniqueness of the Peruvian Upwelling System compared with other EBUS that leads to the out of phase relationship; (2) how does this uniqueness lead to low phytoplankton biomass in austral winter despite strong upwelling and ample nutrients? Using observational climatologies for four EBUS we diagnose that the Peruvian Upwelling System is unique in that intense upwelling coincides with deep mixed layers. We then apply a coupled regional ocean circulation-biogeochemical model (CROCO-BioEBUS) to assess how the interplay between mixed layer and upwelling is regulating the seasonality of surface chlorophyll in the Peruvian Upwelling System. The model recreates the "seasonal paradox" within 200 km off the Peruvian coast. We confirm previous findings that deep mixed layers, which cause vertical dilution and stronger light limitation, mostly drive the diametrical seasonality of chlorophyll relative to upwelling. In contrast to previous studies, reduced phytoplankton growth due to enhanced upwelling of cold waters and lateral advection are second-order drivers of low surface chlorophyll concentrations. This impact of deep mixed layers and upwelling propagates up the ecosystem, from primary production to export efficiency. Our findings emphasize the crucial role of the interplay of the mixed layer and upwelling and suggest that surface chlorophyll may increase along with a weakened seasonal paradox in response to shoaling mixed layers under climate change.

Document Type: Article
Funder compliance: BMBF: 01LC1823B
Keywords: CROCO; BioEBUS; Peruvian Upwelling System (PUS); marine ecosystem; Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS)
Dewey Decimal Classification: 500 Natural Sciences and Mathematics > 570 Life sciences; biology
Research affiliation: OceanRep > GEOMAR > FB2 Marine Biogeochemistry > FB2-BM Biogeochemical Modeling
Main POF Topic: PT6: Marine Life
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: Yes
Publisher: Copernicus Publications (EGU)
Related URLs:
Projects: Humboldt Tipping, CUSCO, Opendap
Date Deposited: 12 May 2021 08:51
Last Modified: 08 Feb 2023 09:30
URI: https://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/52594

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