Zur Ökologie und Ernährungsbiologie der Euphausiaceen (Crustacea) im Arabischen Meer.

Weigmann, Renate (1970) Zur Ökologie und Ernährungsbiologie der Euphausiaceen (Crustacea) im Arabischen Meer. Meteor Forschungsergebnisse: Reihe D, Biologie, 5 . pp. 11-52.

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Abstract

In the present paper, the ecology and feeding habits of euphausiids are described. The samples were taken at the time of the NE-monsoon (1964/65) by R. V. "Meteor" in the Arabian Sea and adjacent waters. 24 species were determined. According to distribution of the species, the following marine areas can be distinguished:
ARABIAN SEA: 24 species, dominant are Euphausia diomedeae, E. tenera, E. distinguenda, Stylocheiron carinatum.
GULF OF ADEN: 10 species, dominant are Euphausia diomedeae, E. distinguenda.
RED SEA: 6 species, dominant are Euphausia diomedeae, E. distinguenda.
GULF OF OMAN: 5 Species, dominant are Euphausia distinguenda, Pseudeuphausia latifrons.
PERSIAN GULF: 1 species - Pseudeuphausia latifrons.
The total number of euphausiids indicate the biomass of this group. High densities of euphausiids (200-299 and > 300 individuals/100 m3) occur in the innermost part of the Gulf of Aden, in the area south of the equator near the African east coast, near Karachi (Indian west coast) and in the Persian Gulf. Comparison with data relating to production biology confirms that these are eutrophic zones which coincide with areas in which upwelling occurs at the time of the NE-monsoon. The central part of the Arabian Sea differs from adjacent waters by virtue of less dense euphausiid populations (> 199 individuals/100 m3). Measurements relating to production biology demonstrate a relatively low concentration of primary food sources. Food material was ascertained by analysis of stomach content. The following omnivorous species were examined: Euphausia diomedeae, E. distinguenda, E. tenera, Pseudeuphausia latifrons and Thysanopoda tricuspidata. Apart from crustacean remains large numbers of Foraminifera, Radiolaria, tintinnids, dinoflagellates were found in the stomachs. Quantitatively crustaceans form the most important item in the diet. Food selection on the basis of size and form appears to be restricted to certain genera of tintinnids. The genera Stylocheiron and Nematoscelis are predators. Only crustacean remains were found in the stomachs of Stylocheiron abbreviatum, whereas Radiolaria, Foraminifera and tintinnids occurred to some extent in Nematoscelis sp. Different euphausiids occupy different positions in the food chain in the Arabian Sea. In omnivorous species the position is variable, since they not only feed by filtering autotrophic and heterotrophic Protista, but also by predation on zooplanktion. Carnivorous species without filtering apparatus feed exclusively on zooplankton of the size of copepods. Only these species are well established as occupying a higher position in the food chain. The parasitic protozoan Thalassomyces fagei was found on Euphausia diomedeae, E. tenera, E. distinguenda and E. sanzoi.

Document Type: Article
Refereed: Yes
Open Access Journal?: No
Date Deposited: 04 Aug 2022 08:22
Last Modified: 04 Aug 2022 08:27
URI: https://oceanrep.geomar.de/id/eprint/56759

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